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(chŏk`tô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly occupied central and S Mississippi with some outlying groups in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. Choctaw culture was similar to that of the Creek and Chickasaw, who were their enemies in repeated wars. The Choctaw economy was based on agriculture, and the Choctaw were perhaps the most competent farmers in the Southeast. Friendly toward the French colonists, the Choctaw were their allies in wars against other tribes. After being forced to cede their lands in Alabama and Mississippi, they moved (1832) to the Indian TerritoryIndian Territory,
in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to
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 in Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1990 there were over 85,000 Choctaw in the United States, with more than half living in Oklahoma.


See A. Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (3d ed. 1967); A. H. DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians (1971); W. D. Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws (1972); C. K. Reeves, The Choctaw Before Removal (1985).

References in periodicals archive ?
Philadelphia, Mississippi: Choctaw Heritage Press, Mississippi Band Of Choctaw Indians, 1982), 20-21.
Despite this, the Choctaw Indian being interviewed is described comically: "The Choctaw is dirty.
19) The Chief of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians testified in the 1978 Senate hearings that "culturally, the chances of Indian survival are significantly reduced if our children, the only real means for the transmission of the tribal heritage, are to be raised in non-Indian homes and denied exposure to the ways of their People.
In June 2003, Abramoff persuaded DeLay to organize a letter, co-signed by House Speaker Dennis Hastert, Majority Whip Roy Blunt and Chief Deputy Majority Whip Eric Cantor, to endorse a view of gambling law benefiting the Louisiana Coushatta tribe's effort to block gambling competition by another tribe, the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians.
Joe Baca, D-San Bernardino, who received $6,000 from the Agua Caliente Band and $2,000 from the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians.
Fred Eggan, "The Choctaw and their Neighbors in the Southeast: Acculturation Under Pressure," The American Indian: Perspectives for the Study of Social Change (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1966), 19-20; John Edwards, "The Choctaw Indians in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century," Chronicles of Oklahoma 10.
As a young boy in New Orleans, in his native state of Louisiana, he was fascinated by the nearby Choctaw Indians, and after becoming a priest, ministered to them.
Small Business Administration (SBA) as a Tribally-owned 8(a), HUBZone, Small Disadvantaged Business and is wholly owned by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians.
Pappy was known for his craftsmanship in creating these heirlooms, many of which had backs and seats woven of bamboo cane by the Choctaw Indians.
and which has about 77 members, claims to be a group of Choctaw Indians who migrated from North Carolina to Georgia and then to Florida following the Indian removals of the 1830s.
IN 1931, ANTHROPOLOGIST JOHN SWANTON PUBLISHED SOURCE MATERIAL for the Social and Ceremonial Life of the Choctaw Indians, a groundbreaking, ethnohistorical text that reflected the author's combination of historical and anthropological research methods.