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(chŏk`tô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly occupied central and S Mississippi with some outlying groups in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. Choctaw culture was similar to that of the Creek and Chickasaw, who were their enemies in repeated wars. The Choctaw economy was based on agriculture, and the Choctaw were perhaps the most competent farmers in the Southeast. Friendly toward the French colonists, the Choctaw were their allies in wars against other tribes. After being forced to cede their lands in Alabama and Mississippi, they moved (1832) to the Indian TerritoryIndian Territory,
in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to
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 in Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1990 there were over 85,000 Choctaw in the United States, with more than half living in Oklahoma.


See A. Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (3d ed. 1967); A. H. DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians (1971); W. D. Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws (1972); C. K. Reeves, The Choctaw Before Removal (1985).

References in periodicals archive ?
Later, when the coal mines closed for a time and young Hurley was without work, he spent his days in the company of Native American members of the Choctaw Nation who, along with the Creeks and Cherokees, were the most prominent Indian tribes in the territory.
Though he works with Auda to bring many improvements to the Choctaw Nation, he also allies himself with the Mafia to build the Casino of the Sun.
If at least two of Amir Pasha, Trumpstoo and Choctaw Nation aren't in the first four, I'll eat the bar of Picnic I've just bought, notwithstanding the frightening combination of E442, E471 and E476 it contains.
The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma has partnered with Flintco Constructive Solutions and WorthGroup Architects to complete the Choctaw Casino Resort Durant expansion project, which is scheduled to open in February 2010.
Gavin Clarkson, director of tribal finance at Westrock, a professor of law at the University of Houston Law Center and a member of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma.
Author Tingle is a storyteller and an enrolled member of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma.
Allen Wright left a giant legacy for the Choctaw Nation and the state of Oklahoma.
says Verdie Triplett, with the Choctaw-Chickasaw Freedmen Association, based out of Choctaw Nation in Fort Coffee, Okla.
Bok Chitto is the river that divides the Choctaw nation from the plantations of Mississippi.
The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, a tribe in which I am enrolled, is headquartered in southeastern Oklahoma and has a tribal citizenry of just over 175,000.
Author Tim Tingle is a member of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, and illustrator Jeanne Rorex Bridges is of Cherokee ancestry.