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(chŏk`tô), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They formerly occupied central and S Mississippi with some outlying groups in Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana. Choctaw culture was similar to that of the Creek and Chickasaw, who were their enemies in repeated wars. The Choctaw economy was based on agriculture, and the Choctaw were perhaps the most competent farmers in the Southeast. Friendly toward the French colonists, the Choctaw were their allies in wars against other tribes. After being forced to cede their lands in Alabama and Mississippi, they moved (1832) to the Indian TerritoryIndian Territory,
in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw) of the Southeast to
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 in Oklahoma, where they became one of the Five Civilized Tribes. In 1990 there were over 85,000 Choctaw in the United States, with more than half living in Oklahoma.


See A. Debo, The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic (3d ed. 1967); A. H. DeRosier, The Removal of the Choctaw Indians (1971); W. D. Baird, Peter Pitchlynn: Chief of the Choctaws (1972); C. K. Reeves, The Choctaw Before Removal (1985).

References in periodicals archive ?
It may come as something of a surprise that one Native American political unit, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, decided to implement distance learning of the Choctaw language without outside collaboration and without previous experience in distance learning technologies.
The Chickasaw Nation, Cherokee Nation, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Whitten-Burrage Law Firm, Native Explorers Foundation and OSU-CHS have funded the Native Explorers program.
Members of my tribe, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, for example, have been especially hard hit by a variety of ailments directly related to poor diet and lack of exercise.
The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma (CNO) Scholarship Advisement Program (SAP) has been chosen to receive the Education Award at the inaugural Native American Drum Awards (http://www.
1 million; Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, $2 million; Citizen Potawatomi Nation, $1.
A single-mom who admits she struggled in order to give her girls a good education, Terri says the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma (CNO) Scholarship Advisement Program (SAP) has meant everything to her and her girls.
The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma (CNO) is offering college-bound students enrolled in its Scholarship Advisement Program (SAP) free online test preparation instruction from Kaplan Test Prep and Admissions, the world leader in test preparation services.
The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma (CNO) Scholarship Advisement Program (SAP) has been selected to advance to the semi-final round of evaluation for Harvard University's 2010 Honoring Nations, a program administered by the Harvard University's Project on American Indian Economic Development at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.
Alcoa today announced that it will make available about 500 recycling bins to the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma in an effort to encourage aluminum can recycling throughout the tribe.
The largest installation at the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma is a regulated installation with four petabytes of SAN storage that simultaneously provides more than 200 virtual servers.
The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma (CNO) announced today it is providing CNO students - and their parents - free online access to a unique database of scholarship and related funding opportunities that has been custom-designed for CNO members.