is essential to fully understand the distribution and relationship of bile duct and pancreatic duct.
Right hepatic duct opening into the cystic duct: the role of pre- and intraoperative cholangiography
. Hepatogastroenterology 2005; 52: 719-21.
(2) Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography
with and without Biliary Drain.
It may help surgeons to confirm the biliary anatomy before dividing any ductal structures, and thus prevent BDI, or to confirm BDI intraoperatively., However, routine use of IOC is still under debate., Many techniques have been developed for biliary tract evaluation, such as laparoscopic ultrasonography, dye cholangiography
, and near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography
. Many comparative studies are still ongoing to determine whether these techniques are superior in regard to safety, accessibility, ease of interpretation, and radiation exposure.
Zimmon, "Endoscopy and retrograde cholangiography
via gastrostomy," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol.
Two patients with filling defect underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiography
and stone extraction for residual stones.
Complete stone removal confirmation was performed by cholangiography
using balloon catheter.
Given the patient's new-onset pruritus, worsening serum liver tests, and abnormal imaging findings, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography
(ERC) was performed.
The current diagnostic criteria for IgG4-SC consist of cholangiography
, serum IgG4, other organ manifestations of IgG4-RD, and characteristic histopathological features .
Hayashi, "Evaluation of aberrant bile ducts before laparoscopic cholecystectomy: helical CT cholangiography
versus MR cholangiography
," American Journal of Roentgenology, vol.
Our policy is to perform CBD evaluation with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or intraoperative cholangiography
(IOC) before elective cholecystectomy for acute biliary pancreatitis.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography
(ERC) performed revealed resolution of stricture (Figure 5).