Chola

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Chola

(chō`lə), S Indian dynasty, whose kingdom was in what is now Tamil NaduTamil Nadu
, formerly Madras
, state (2001 provisional pop. 62,110,839), 50,180 sq mi (129,966 sq km), SE India, on the Bay of Bengal. The capital is Chennai (formerly Madras).
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. Its chief capitals were at Kanchi (Kanchipuram) and ThanjavurThanjavur
, formerly Tanjore
, city (1991 pop. 202,013), Tamil Nadu state, SE India. It is a district administrative headquarters and a rice-milling center on the Kaveri River delta, known as the "rice bowl" of Tamil Nadu.
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 (Tanjore). The Chola kingdom was one of the three of ancient Tamil tradition, but the dynasty had been virtually submerged for centuries when at the end of the 9th cent. A.D. it rose again. Under the famous rulers Rajaraja I (reigned 985–1014) and Rajendra I (reigned 1014–42) Chola power reached its zenith. The former conquered Kerala and occupied N Sri Lanka; the latter completed the conquest of Sri Lanka, invaded Bengal, and sent out a great naval expedition that occupied parts of Myanmar, Malaya, and Sumatra. For 300 years the Chola kingdom supported a flourishing social and economic life, marked by a flowering of Hindu culture. Its greatest architectural monument is an 11th-century temple at Tanjore, which was dedicated to Shiva in celebration of a military victory. By the 13th cent. the kingdom was in decline, and the dynasty ended in 1279.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chola

 

the name of an ancient and medieval state in southern India and the dynasty that ruled the state. The capital of the state, Cholamandalam, was located in the region of Thanjavur. The state language was Tamil.

The feudal despotism of the Chola dynasty reached its height between the late tenth and early 12th centuries, when the rulers subjugated other regions of Tamil Nadu (including Panyamandalam, Tondaimandalam, and Kongumandalam) and parts of what are now Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Sri Lanka. During the same period, the economy and culture of Tamil Nadu flourished. From the 13th to 18th centuries, branches of the Chola family governed a number of small princely states in various regions of southern India.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The vimana of the Brihadeesvara temple of Thanjavur, the premier component of the Great Living Chola Temples Unesco World Heritage Site
Deekshitulu alleged that the floor of the area was dug up by the officials to look for a hidden treasure as it was believed that the jewels donated by the Chola and Pallava kings were hidden there to save them from invading armies.
"I mean, aren't those the same things people say about Cholas [Mexican female gang members]?"
Eran los anos del "socialismo militar" de la posguerra del Chaco (1936-1939), con la politica de sindicalizacion obligatoria, una mezcla de seduccion y represion, lo que le permite al Estado capturar a la mayor parte de los sindicatos masculinos anarquistas o los divide (es el caso del Sindicato de Carpinteros) y quedan los gremios femeninos: las cocineras, las floristas, las vendedoras del mercado, y todas eran cholas. Entonces ahi esta mi primera afiliacion "identitaria" fuerte, que vincula al anarquismo con las mujeres.
(2) En esta caricatura se representa tambien a Bolivia como una mujer negra, aunque con rasgos atribuibles a las "cholas" bolivianas (trenzas, falda ancha, bombin), siendo esta representacion una excepcion dentro de las revistas, ya que las representaciones de este pais giraran en torno a su raiz indigena.
We need more cholas."--Jake Phelps, thinking diversity