Cholecystitis


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cholecystitis

[‚kō·lə‚sis′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the gallbladder.

Cholecystitis

 

an inflammation of the gallbladder that frequently occurs in cholelithiasis (commonly known as gallstone disease), after viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases, and in the presence of a chronic focal infection (such as tonsillitis) or parasitic disease (such as opisthorchosis).

Stoppages or changes in the composition of the bile, which may be related to a person’s diet, are contributing factors in cholecystitis. The condition often occurs in conjunction with cholangitis. Cholecystitis may be acute or chronic. In the acute form, the main symptoms are intermittent pain in the right abdomen radiating to the right shoulder and shoulder blade, nausea and vomiting, chills and elevated body temperature, and sometimes jaundice and pruritus. Peritonitis is a possible dangerous complication of acute cholecystitis. The symptoms of chronic cholecystitis are nausea, a dull pain in the right hypochondrium, and other disagreeable sensations after eating. Laboratory tests and cholecystocholangiograms are important means of diagnosing cholecystitis.

Conservative treatment of cholecystitis and other inflammatory diseases of the biliary tract is aimed chiefly at suppressing the infection (by means of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents) and increasing the outflow of bile (by special diet, cholagogues and antispasmodics, duodenal probing, and mineral waters such as Borzhom and Essentuki no. 4). Foods that are mechanically or chemically irritating are eliminated from the diet. In the case of acute cholecystitis, surgery is resorted to when conservative therapy is ineffectual. If the disease is chronic, an operation (cholecystectomy) is performed if indicated in the given case after a careful and comprehensive examination of the patient. An operation is not indicated for functional disturbances of the gallbladder (biliary dyskenesia).

REFERENCES

Fedorov, S. P. Zhelchnye kamni i khirurgiia zhelchnykh putei, 2nd ed. Leningrad-Moscow, 1934.
Vishnevskii, A. A., E. V. Grishkevich, and D. S. Sarkisov. Khronicheskii kal’kuleznyi kholetsistit i ego khirurgicheskoe lechenie. Leningrad, 1967.
Nogaller, A. M. Zabolevaniia zhelchnogo puzyria i zhelchnykh putei. Moscow, 1969.
Petrov, B. A., and E. I. Gal’perin. Khirurgiia vnepechenochnykh zhelchnykhprotokov. Moscow, 1971.
Khirurgiia pecheni i zhelchnykh protokov. Edited by A. A. Shalimov. Kiev, 1975.
Olivier, C. Chirurgie des voies biliaires extra- et intra-hépatiques. Paris, 1961.
Schwartz, S. Surgical Diseases of the Liver. New York, 1964.

V. R. ANAKHASIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Maruoka et al., "Predicting the success of endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage for patients with acute cholecystitis during pretreatment evaluation," Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.
Acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis caused by hemobilia after percutaneous ultrasound-guided liver biopsy.
Indirect indicators include the presence of a pericholecystic abscess along with calculus cholecystitis. Free intraperitoneal fluid with collapsed gallbladder raises the suspicion of gallbladder perforation.
Inflammation, cholecystitis and hence adhesion formation is often more sever in elderly patients than those in younger age group.16 Also it is more common among those with history of myocardial infarction.17 So in such patients SLC may be a better option particularly as minimizing the operative time as well as postoperative complications is important in these patients.
The objective of this study is to assess the role of CT in the evaluation of acute cholecystitis and its complications.
In the literature, however, gangrenous cholecystitis, pleural effusions and ascites are rarely due to HAV infections.
Acute cholecystitis complicated with portal vein thrombosis: A case report and literature review.
Conclusion: Acute cholecystitis patients with high WBC, BUN, creatinine and INR levels at admission should be referred to an advanced care center for management.
A total of 350 patients with acute or chronic cholecystitis or gall stone pancreatitis underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the study period while patients with history of abdominal surgery, immunocompromised, patients more than 70 years of age or with co morbidities like cardiac disease, severe asthma, liver disease with ascites and renal compromised patients were not considered for laparoscopy.
Although ordinary GB adenocarcinomas typically present with chronic cholecystitis, MA presents with an acute cholecystitis type picture.
If cholecystitis is due to an infection, antibiotics may be used to treat the condition.
Even such patient has liability to anomaly it is not like the affinity to cholecystitis (1).