Presynaptic cholinergic function, such as loss of choline acetyl transferase
(ChAT), the enzyme for synthesis of acetylcholine (ACh) from choline and acetyl-coenzyme A, and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), the transporter for the accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) inside the synaptic vesicles, is changed in AD [26,27].
Table 1: Primer names and sequences used for qRT-PCR Genes Forward primer Reverse primer P-actin AAGATCAAGATCATTGCTCCTC CTCAGTAACAGTCCGCCT ACE TTGACGTGAGCAACTTCC CAGATCAGGCTCCAGTG ChAT TCATTAATTTCCGCCGTCTC AGTCCCGGTTGGTGGAGTC qRT-PCR: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, ACE: Angiotensin converting enzyme, ChAT: Choline acetyl transferase
The clinical features of Alzheimer's disease have been associated with cholinergic dysfunction due to reduction of the activity of the enzyme choline acetyl transferase
. This dysfunction is caused by the excitatory amino acids glutamate or aspartate, which, in turn, provoke excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) inflammatory molecules.