Chondrilla


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Chondrilla

 

(gum succory), a genus of perennial or, less commonly, biennial herbs of the family Compositae. The stems often branch from the base and are more or less pubescent, especially in the lower part. The root system is usually massive. There are about 30 species, distributed in temperate regions of Eurasia. More than 20 species are found in the USSR, mainly in sandy areas in the steppe, semidesert, and, to a lesser extent, desert regions of Middle Asia. Many species form calluses on their roots and on the subterranean part of their stems; the calluses contain rubber, but they have no commercial significance.

REFERENCES

Il’in, M. M. “Khondrilla (Chondrilla L.).” In Kauchuk i kauchukonosnye, vol. 2. Moscow, 1953.
Leonova, T. G. “Khondrilla—Chondrilla L.” In Flora SSSR, vol. 29. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964.
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Invasive species targeted for control include: yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), Scotch thistle (Onopordum acanthium), dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea), and giant reed (Arundo donax).
Cakir dikeni, Oyun dikeni (E.O.13, ISTE 109650) Chondrilla juncea L.
Otros estudios en Asteraceae han mostrado como los tricomas foliares son utiles para identificar especies, como es el caso de Agoseris Rai, Andryala L., Cephalorrhynchus Boiss., Chondrilla L., Crepis L., Crepidiastrum Nakai, Hieracium L., Hypochaeris L.
(2014), showing a compatible sequence length and BLAST-based homology: the contig_524 from Chondrilla nucula (Demospongiae), the contig_4169 from Petrosia ficiformis (Demospongiae), and the comp7958_c0_seql from Aphrocallistes vastus (Hexactinellidae).
From March 2009 to October 2011, the soil of the vineyard was not tilled but cover cropped with spontaneous species (Avena fatua spp., Calendula officinalis L., Petroselinum crispum, Carlina hispanica Lam., Chondrilla juncea L., Scandix pecten-veneris L., Borago officinalis L., and other minor species).
Otros generos con especies medicinales y aromaticas son: Acanthospermum, Acmella, Ageratum, Ambrosia, Anacyclus, Anaphalis, Anthemis, Arctium, Argyranthemum, Aster, Atractylis, Atractylodes, Bellis, Bidens, Blumea, Calea, Carduncellus, Carduus, Centipeda, Centromadia, Chaptalia, Chersodoma, Chondrilla, Chuquiraga, Chrysactinia, Chrysanthellum, Chrysanthemum s.
Weed Bioagent Kind of Reporting bioagent country Chondrilla Puccina Rust Australia juncea chondrillina Cyperus Bactra Shoot boring India, rotundus verutana moth Pakistan, USA Eupatorium Entyloma Plant USA riparium compositarum pathogen Hydrilla Hydrellia Shoot fly USA verticillata pakistanae Orobanche Sclerotinia Plant USA cernua sp.
Vigna MR, Briazo AE de, Curvetto RO, Lopez RL (1993) Introduccion, Colonizacion y Establecimiento de Eriophyes chondillae G Can (Acarina: Erriophydae) Agente de Control Biologico de Chondrilla juncea L.
Rye straw (Secale cereale L.), the dry fronds of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn and, to a lesser extent, the dry aerial parts of Chondrilla juncea L.
A pesquisa demonstrou que dentre as quatro especies utilizadas (Aplysina fulva, Chondrilla nucula, Dysidea fragilis e Hymeniacidon heliophila), ocorre uma variacao em composicao quimica e massas moleculares dos PSs.
57.1 (7;4) Ircinia felix 12.5 (8; 1) Chondrilla nucula 12.5 (8; 1) Placospongia carinata 12.5 (8; 1) Tethya sp.
Algal-animal symbiosis is not found only in coral reefs: In temperate waters there are many sponges (Ircinia, Cliona, Chondrilla) and zooantharians (Anemonia, Anthopleura) that take advantage of microscopic endosymbiotic algae to increase their production in illuminated areas and, thus, compete with seaweeds.