Chrétien de Troyes

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Chrétien de Troyes


Chrestien de Troyes

(both: krātyăN` də trwä), fl. 1170, French poet, author of the first great literary treatments of the Arthurian legendArthurian legend,
the mass of legend, popular in medieval lore, concerning King Arthur of Britain and his knights. Medieval Sources

The battle of Mt. Badon—in which, according to the Annales Cambriae (c.
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. His narrative romances, composed c.1170–c.1185 in octosyllabic rhymed couplets, include Érec et Énide; Cligès; Lancelot, le chevalier de la charette; Yvain, le chevalier au lion; and Perceval, le conte del Graal, unfinished (see ParsifalParsifal
, figure of Arthurian legend also known as Sir Percivale, who is in turn a later form of a hero of Celtic myth. The name originally occurs as Pryderi, an alternative name of Gwry in Pwyll Prince of Dyved, a tale in the Mabinogion.
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). Chrétien drew on popular legend and history, and imbued his romances with the ideals of chivalry current at the 12th-century court of Marie de Champagne, to which he was attached. His other surviving works include imitations of Ovid and Guillaume d'Angleterre, a non-Arthurian narrative. Translations of the Arthurian romances are included in W. W. Comfort's edition (1913) and in R. S. and L. H. Loomis, Medieval Romances (1957).


See L. T. Ropsfield, Chrétien de Troyes: A Study of the Arthurian Romances (1981); J. Frappier, Chretién de Troyes: The Man and His Work (1982); N. J. Lacy et al., ed., The Legacy of Chrétien de Troyes (2 vol., 1988).

Chrétien de Troyes


(or Chréstien). Born circa 1130, in Troyes; died there circa 1191. French poet who wrote verse in the style of the trouvères of northern France and translated Ovid's Art of Love and Metamorphoses.

Chrétien's best works are the courtly romances Erec and Enide (c. 1162), Cliges (c. 1164), Lancelot, or the Knight of the Cart (c. 1168), Yvain, or the Knight of the Lion (c. 1172), and Perceval, or the Tale of the Grail (c. 1182). They inspired numerous imitations and adaptations. In his works Chretien used the legends about King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. But these legends are only a colorful background for depictions of real life, the amorous experiences of the main characters, and important social conflicts.


Les Romans de Chrestien de Troyes, vols. 1–4. Paris, 1953–63.
In Russian translation:
In Khrestomatiia po zarubezhnoi literature srednikh vekov. Moscow, 1953.


Istoriia frantsuzskoi literatury. vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1946. Pages 110–17.
Deks, P. Sem’ vekov romana. Moscow, 1962.
Frappier, J. Chrestien de Troyes. Paris, 1957.


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Suffice it to say that even Chretien de Troyes may have a problem with his own Gettier Problem.
Chretien de Troyes first told the story of the exalting love between Lancelot and Guenevere and introduced the theme of the quest for the Holy Grail.
AUTHOR Chretien de Troyes writes the story of Perceval (left), a teenager who sees the grail as a cup in a castle but who is too intimidated to ask what power it wields.
Later writers like Geoffrey of Monmouth, Chretien de Troyes, Thomas Mallory, and Wolfram von Eschenbach combined this bricolage of images and myths into more systematic stories with an overlay of Christianity.
Erec and Enide, Chretien de Troyes, Berkeley: U of California P, 1992, 30).
The nature of the Grail is a puzzle in the first place because the story that introduced it to the European imagination, the Perceval of Chretien de Troyes, is incomplete and describes the Grail only enigmatically.
7) Chretien de Troyes wrote another version of this romance, where the protagonist is not called Geraint but Erec.
Its central argument is that Chretien de Troyes and his fellow romanciers practised an art of description derived from Macrobius, expounded in commentaries on Horace's Ars poetica, and learned through classroom exercises in imitation and emulation.
Of course, it must be noted that over that same period he has also translated another fifty works from a great variety of writers and languages, ranging from Celtic songs or the twelfth-century writings of Chretien de Troyes, to the English horror stories by Howard Philips Lovecraft, to Garcia Lorca's masterful dramas.
The majority of the essays concern medieval topics related to memory, including essays on Bernard of Clairvaux, Cistercian houses, and Chretien de Troyes.
Chretien de Troyes, Wolfram von Eschenbach, and Robert de Boron have together created a great literary mystery in the various ways they portray the Grail in their works.
Unlike Lancelot who "had only one heart, and it was no longer his; he had entrusted it to another [Guinevere] so that he could bestow it nowhere else" ("The Knight of the Cart", Chretien de Troyes 1990: 185), George neglects Amelia to enjoy the company of other women within a week of their marriage.