Christian III

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Christian III,

1503–59, king of Denmark and Norway (1534–59). At the death of his father, Frederick I, his election was delayed because he was a Lutheran. The German city of LübeckLübeck
, city (1994 pop. 217,270), Schleswig-Holstein, central Germany, on the Trave River near its mouth on the Baltic Sea. It is a major port and a commercial and industrial center; the port is the city's primary employer.
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 invaded Denmark to reinstate the deposed Christian IIChristian II,
1481–1559, king of Denmark and Norway (1513–23) and Sweden (1520–23), son and successor of King John. After several unsuccessful attempts, he asserted claim to Sweden by force.
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, and the minor nobility then forced the election of Christian III in 1534 to preserve Danish autonomy. Christian III allied with Gustavus IGustavus I
, 1496–1560, king of Sweden (1523–60), founder of the modern Swedish state and the Vasa dynasty. Known as Gustavus Eriksson before his coronation, he was the son of Erik Johansson, a Swedish senator and follower of the Sture family.
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 of Sweden to defeat Lübeck in 1536. That victory broke the power of the Hanseatic League and made the Danish fleet supreme in northern waters. Christian established (1536) Lutheranism in Denmark and imposed it on Norway. Never elected king by the Norwegians, he declared Norway a dependency of Denmark. His son Frederick II succeeded him.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Holm explores the Icelanders' pragmatism: they accepted Christianity by fiat in 1000 (the axe hovered) and Lutheranism in 1550 (their overlord, Christian III of Denmark, beheaded their last bishop).
(24) In 1554 King Christian III of Denmark claimed that Narva was only held by the Order from the hand of Valdemar IV as a security and mortgage for the money spent by the Order, when it suppressed the Estonian Uprising in 1343.
Further, what the Markwalds present as polite appeals for financial support to King Christian III of Denmark were actually desperate pleas for the reinstatement of an annual pension, and the authors omit discussion of a later letter to King Christian III in which Katharina says she has been treated better by enemies than by supposed friends.

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