Christian IV

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Christian IV,

1577–1648, king of Denmark and Norway (1588–1648), son and successor of Frederick II. After assuming (1596) personal rule from a regency, he concentrated on building the navy, industry, and commerce. He rebuilt OsloOslo
, city (1995 pop. 482,555), capital of Norway, of Akershus co., and of Oslo co. (175 sq mi/453 sq km), SE Norway, at the head of the Oslofjord (a deep inlet of the Skagerrak).
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 and renamed it Christiania. Aroused when Charles IXCharles IX,
1550–1611, king of Sweden (1604–11), youngest son of Gustavus I. He was duke of Södermanland, Närke, and Värmland before his accession. During the reign of his brother, John III (1568–92), he opposed John's leanings toward Catholicism.
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 of Sweden asserted authority over Lapland, he made war on Sweden (the so-called Kalmar War, 1611–13) and largely dictated the peace. In the Thirty Years WarThirty Years War,
1618–48, general European war fought mainly in Germany. General Character of the War

There were many territorial, dynastic, and religious issues that figured in the outbreak and conduct of the war.
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, urged on by England, France, and the Netherlands, he invaded (1625) Germany to defend Protestantism. Defeated (1626) by TillyTilly, Johannes Tserklaes, count of
, 1559–1632, general in Bavarian and later imperial service during the Thirty Years War. A younger son of a noble family of Brabant, he served under Duke Alessandro Farnese and against the Turks before entering the service of Duke
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 at Lutter, he was driven back in 1627. Schleswig, Holstein, and Jutland were overrun and plundered; Stralsund was besieged by the imperial troops under WallensteinWallenstein or Waldstein, Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von
, 1583–1634, imperial general in the Thirty Years War, b. Bohemia.
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. Christian, with the help of Gustavus II of Sweden, raised the siege of Stralsund, but in 1629 he signed with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II a separate peace that was lenient to Denmark. His anti-Swedish policy brought on a war with Sweden (1643–45) in which Christian lost the Norwegian provinces of Jamtland and Harjedalen. His son Frederick III succeeded him.
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Christian IV

1577--1648, king of Denmark and Norway (1588--1648): defeated in the Thirty Years' War (1629) and by Sweden (1645)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
We find an article by Lars Oluf Larson about rhetoric and authenticity in the portraits of Christian IV of Denmark. It deals with the political and symbolic use of the king's portrait.
Hansen, "Observations on Georg Brandes's Contribution to the Study of Shakespeare"(148-67); Michael Srigley," 'Heavy-headed revel east and west': Hamlet and Christian IV of Denmark" (168-92); Gunnar Sorelius, "The Stockholm 1944 Anti-Nazi Merchant of Venice: The Uncertainty of Response" (193-206).
Others to play a part ranged from the Winter King of Bohemia to the emperors Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III, Bethlen Gabor of Transylvania, Christian IV of Denmark, Gustavus II Adolphus and Queen Christina of Sweden, the Great Elector of Brandenburg, Philip IV of Spain and his brother the Cardinal-Infante, Louis XIII of France, Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin and several popes.
An illuminating move on the confessional chessboard was that of Christian IV of Denmark, who replaced text altarpieces with figural ones as a demonstration of Lutheran moderation.

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