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Charlie. 1919--42, US jazz guitarist


a. a person who believes in and follows Jesus Christ
b. a member of a Christian Church or denomination
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



kings in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The most important were:

Christian I. Born 1426; died May 21, 1481, in Copenhagen. King of Denmark from 1448 to 1481, of Norway from 1450 to 1481, and of Sweden from 1457 to 1464.

Christian I was the founder of the Oldenburg royal dynasty (from the family of the German counts of Oldenburg). During his reign a personal union of Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein was established in 1460. His defeat at the hands of the Swedes at Brunkeberg in 1471 led to the virtual dissolution of the Danish-Swedish union.

Christian II Born July 1,1481, in Nyborg; died Jan. 25,1559, in Kalundborg. King of Denmark and Norway from 1513 to 1523 and of Sweden from 1520 to 1523.

Christian II tried to break the domination of the aristocracy by relying on the lower ranks of the nobility and the burghers. He removed the aristocratic state council from power and granted the burghers a monopoly on foreign trade. He was the last to restore the Danish-Swedish union by force of arms and massacred the opposing Swedish aristocracy and burghers (the Stockholm Blood Bath of 1520). Christian II was overthrown by an uprising of the Danish nobility.

Christian III. Born Aug. 12, 1503, in Gottorp; died Jan. 1, 1559, in Koldinghus. King of Denmark and Norway from 1534 to 1559.

A protégé of the nobility and the clergy, Christian III ascended the royal throne after the defeat of Christian IPs followers (Count’s War of 1534–36). He implemented the Lutheran reformation in 1536.

Christian IV. Born Apr. 12, 1577, in Frederiksborg; died Feb. 28, 1648, in Copenhagen. King of Denmark and Norway from 1588 to 1648 (a council of regents ruled until he came of age in 1596).

Denmark flourished during the reign of Christian IV. He promoted the development of trade and industry and strove to strengthen Danish supremacy in the Baltic and to consolidate Denmark’s influence in northern Germany. His first war with Sweden (Kalmar War, 1611–13) was successful, but his intervention in the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) in 1625–29 on the side of the anti-Hapsburg coalition ended in failure. The second war with Sweden (1643–45) led to the crushing defeat of Denmark (the Treaty of Brömsebro).


Christian VIII. Born Sept. 18, 1786, in Copenhagen; died there Jan. 20, 1848. King of Denmark from 1839.

Christian VIII was the grandson of Frederick V. As viceroy of Norway (from 1813) he refused to recognize the term of the Kiel Peace Treaty of 1814 on the transfer of Norway from Denmark to Sweden. In May 1814 he was elected king of Norway but was not recognized by the great powers, and in October 1814 he abdicated. Christian did not participate in government affairs from 1818 to 1831. From 1831 to 1839 he was a member of the Privy Council. After he became king of Denmark in 1839, Christian opposed the peasant and liberal bourgeois movement in Denmark and the national liberation movements in Schleswig and Holstein.

Christian IX. Born Apr. 8, 1818, in Gottorp; died Jan. 29, 1906, in Copenhagen. King of Denmark from 1863.

Christian IX was the first Danish king of the Gliicksborg dynasty; he acquired his right to the throne from his marriage to a niece of Christian VIII. In 1901, under the pressure of the democratic and liberal bourgeois movement in the country, he granted to the parliament the right to form the Danish government. Christian IX’s daughter, Louise Sophie Frederikke Dagmar, became in 1866 the wife of the Russian emperor Alexander III under the name of Empress Mariia Fedorovna.

Christian X. Born Sept. 26, 1870, in Charlottenlund; died Apr. 20, 1947, in Copenhagen. King of Denmark from 1912 and of Iceland 1918 to 1944.

Christian X was the son and heir of Frederick VIII. In World War II (1939–45) he gained popularity by his firmly unyielding attitude toward the fascist German occupation authorities.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


flees the City of Destruction. [Br. Lit.: Pilgrim’s Progress]
See: Escape


travels to Celestial City with cumbrous burden on back. [Br. Lit.: Pilgrim’s Progress]
See: Journey


John Bunyan’s virtuous, well-traveled hero. [Br. Lit.: Pilgrim’s Progress]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This archetype of justice has been Christianized into Saint Michael's warrior equipment and is even a symbol of justice today.
This was most likely done after Egyptians were Christianized. Defacing the eyes was a symbol of defiling the "pagan" religion of the ancient Egyptians, for the eye was a symbol of the afterlife.
A growing number of far right leaders have launched a bitter attack against judicial activists" on the state and federal bench who are thwarting their drive toward a "Christianized" government.
His conquering lords illustrate quite exactly that transformation Duby described in The Early Growth of the European Economy, from the rather brutal mentality of tribal warriors - "plunder-and-distribute" - to the more systematic approach of exploit-and-spend.(1) As the archbishop of Magdeborg wrote about the formerly pagan, but now Christianized Juteborg: "Hence out of love of Christianity, we strive for the safety and advantage of all those who have entered this province or may wish to come with no less zeal for income than for our own advantage" (p.
He destroyed the Lombard kingdom, drove the Muslims back in Spain, and Christianized still-pagan Germans at the point of the sword.
Indian Converts: or, Some Account of the Lives and Dying Speeches of a Considerable Number of Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard (1727) gave an account of his missionary activities.
With such caveats in mind, the heavily Christianized translation by Juan Mascaro (1962) and that of Swarni Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood (1954) may be recommended.
Military expeditions employed a mix of Spanish regulars and the greater bulk of native militia recruited from Christianized vassals.
Some have been Christianized and they have incorporated Spanish customs [in their dances].
1600), Columbus' plan for the New World and the Spanish conversion of the Americas (1492-c.1590), "Christianized" Muslims in the Middle East (1400-1635), and Jews and the search for the Ten Lost Tribes.
To be a Christian meant possessing power for the first time--power over the Jew--and that power signified imperial power over a Christianized universe.
Those practicing Christian mission among Muslims in the past thirteen centuries have long recognized that Muslims can not be evangelized in the same way that medieval Europe, the Americas, Africa south of Sahara, and the islands of the Pacific were christianized, whether under the auspices of colonialism or by voluntary mission groups.