Chromaffin Cells


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Chromaffin Cells

 

in humans and other vertebrates, endocrine cells that elaborate adrenaline, noradrenaline, and probably a number of other catecholamines contained in their cytoplasmic granules; the cells secrete these substances into the blood. Chromaffin cells are derived from neural ectoderm. After fixation with chromium salts, the cells acquire a dark-brown color, hence the name “chromaffin.” The aggregate of chromaffin cells in the body make up the adrenal system.

In humans and other higher vertebrates the cells are polygonal or irregular, sometimes having barely perceptible appendages that are entwined with the capillaries and form aggregates— paraganglia—in various parts of the body (near the nerve ganglia and fibers, in the region of the cervicothoracic vessels, and in the parenchyma of organs). The largest aggregate of chromaffin cells is the adrenal medulla. The elaboration and discharge of neurohormones from the cytoplasmic granules into the blood are regulated by neuromechanisms. In lower vertebrates the chromaffin cells have many appendages and are diffused in the walls of the large arteries of the trunk and deep within the cardiac muscle; discharge of hormones from the cytoplasmic granules is continuous. Chromaffin cells have also been discovered in invertebrates, for example, in the ganglia of the ventral nerve cord in annelid worms.

REFERENCES

See references under PARAGANGLIA.

N. A. SMITTEN

References in periodicals archive ?
Neher, "Rapid exocytosis in single chromaffin cells recorded from mouse adrenal slices," Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
However, sympathetic paraganglioma are usually secretory neuroendocrine tumors derived from chromaffin cells. They often present with systemic symptoms related to catecholamine excess.
Pheochromocytomas arise from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland.
Approximately 85% arise from chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla, and 15% arise from chromaffin tissue in extra-adrenal sites extending from the neck to the pelvis, although most are found intra-abdominally.
Cg A, isolated from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, is an acidic glycoprotein with 439 amino acids (21) and is present in secretory dense core granules located within the cytoplasm of these NE cells (22), However, CgA production seems to depend on tumor type or tumor differentiation and the sensitivity of CgA detection in tissue or plasma may be low in moderately or poorly differentiated NE carcinomas (23).
In the second stage, beginning 48 hours after the injury, the adrenals are greatly enlarged but regain their lipoid granules, while the medullary chromaffin cells show vacuolization; the edema begins to disappear, numerous basophiles appear in the pituitary; the thyroid shows a tendency towards hyperplasia (more marked in the guinea pig); general body growth ceases, and the gonads become atrophic; in lactating animals, milk secretion stops.
To evaluate the cytotoxic effect in cultured chromaffin cells, LDH release assay has been used by (Sicard et al.
A primary response is the activation of brain centers, which eventually results in the release of cortisol from the steroid-producing cells and of catecholamines from the head kidney chromaffin cells. Secondary responses are defined as the subsequent actions and effects of these hormones at blood and tissue level, and may include a disturbance of the hydromineral and metabolic balance (Barton and Iwama, 1991).
Amperometric recordings in chromaffin cells from mice exposed to 68 mg (140 [micro]mol)/kg bw BDE-47 did not reveal changes in catecholamine release parameters.
Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation played a key role in the development of a unique exposure system that provides online monitoring of non-thermal radio frequency (RF) effects on catecholamine release from cultured adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, a well-characterized in vitro model of neural-type cells.
The cells, called chromaffin cells, have large vesicles, 200 nanometers (nm) across.