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Inflammation of the pancreas.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas.

Acute pancreatitis may be edematous, hemorrhagic, necrotic, or purulent. It is caused by overeating; by diseases of the stomach, duodenum, biliary tract, or liver; or by stenosis of the gland’s ducts. In acute pancreatitis the pancreas is digested by its own enzymes—trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase. When the gland’s tissue decomposes, kinins are released. They decrease arterial pressure and are a factor in blood circulation disorder of both organic and reflex origin in the pancreas. The kinins also cause bile to flow into the gland’s ducts, which damages their walls.

Acute pancreatitis may be marked by very severe abdominal pains, persistent vomiting, and collapse. Complications are peritonitis, abscesses, cysts of the gland, and diabetes mellitus. The disease is treated by narcotics, antibiotics, vasoconstrictors, and such antienzyme preparations as trasilol and contrical and by A. V. Vishnevskii’s paranephric novocain blockade. Serious complications are treated surgically.

In chronic pancreatitis, the gland’s external and internal secretions gradually become insufficient. The disease is treated by diet, antispasmodics, substitutes, cholegogues, antibiotics, and antienzyme preparations. During periods of remission, the patient may receive treatment at a health resort.


Shelagurov, A. A. Bolezni podzheludochnoi zhelezy. Moscow, 1970.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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