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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a medieval historical account of the principal stages of world history since “the creation of the world.” The sources of such chronographies included biblical texts, the works of ancient writers and church fathers, church histories, hagiographies, the Apocrypha, and various chronicles. Works of this type contained historical, literary, and geographic information. Western European chronographies date back to the seventh century; Byzantine chronographies date from the sixth through the 15th century. The Byzantine chronographies included, in addition to the customary ones, short compositions that were known as paschal chronographies and were intended for use in educational institutions.

Among the best-known chronographies are those of John Malalas (sixth century), Georgios Amartolos (ninth century, continued in the tenth century), and Theophanes the Confessor (ninth century). Translations of the first two appeared in Kievan Rus’ around the middle of the 11th century. A Russian version appeared soon thereafter—the chronography (Khronograf po velikomu izlozheniiu) that was one of the sources of the Primary Chronicle, or Tale of Bygone Years. Various versions of this chronography appeared in the 13th and 14th centuries.

A work known as “The Hellenic Chronicle, Second Edition” appeared in Rus’ around the mid-15th century; its new narrative style was developed in the “Russian Chronography” that appeared in the late 15th or early 16th century. The oldest portion of the latter work was preserved in a chronography dated 1512. The Russian Chronography made use of new Byzantine sources as well as of South Slavic writings and condensed Russian chronicle compilations of the late 15th century. In its turn, this chronography was the source of various other works, including the one known as the “Western Russian Chronography” (which drew on M. Bielski’s Chronicle of the World for its account of European history), the “Extensive Chronography” (preserved in editions of 1599 and 1601), and chronographies dated 1617 and 1620 (the former providing valuable information on Russian history of the early 17th century). The later Russian chronographies were used as sources of local chronographies in Bulgaria, Serbia, Moldavia, and Walachia. Chronographies of a distinctive type continued to appear until the mid-18th century.


Polnoe sobrante russkikh letopisei, vol. 22, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1911–14.
Popov, A. N. Obzor khronografov russkoi redaktsii, parts 1–2. Moscow, 1866–69.
Tvorogov, O. V. Drevnerusskie khronografy. Leningrad, 1975.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The authors are to be lauded for having done so much to illuminate the history of the timeline and to set the stage for years of productive research into the histories of chronology and chronography.
In 2006, the professor and researcher Adrian-Silvan Ionescu publishes "The Crimea War--after 150 years." The author gives us a very accurate chronography, extremely useful for all the researchers who want to get information about the European conflict that involved--almost--all the important countries of the continent at the end of the 19th century.
For related questions of chronometry, chronology, chronography and chronosophy, see Pomian 1984 (after: Ricoeur:193).
(14) The solar calendar, inherited from the Romans, provided the basis for the dating of historical events and the observances of saints' feasts in the sanctorale; on the other hand, the lunar calendar was a holdover from Judaic custom, preserved in Christian chronography because of the relationship between Easter and Passover, which the Hebrew lunar calendar determined.
Theory and methods in decision making, as well as chronography of events in Magic Countries], MocKBa: Jloroc: 182-183 (in Russian).
Interactional structures of therapist and client participation in adult psychotherapy: P techinique and chronography. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 28-36.
6-32, Richard Landes, "Lest the Millennium Be Fulfilled: Apocalyptic Expectations and the Pattern of Western Chronography 100-800," in The Use and Abuse of Eschatology in the Middle Ages, ed.
His paper is a compact yet thought-provoking discussion of Eusebius's lists of bishops and their affinity with the tradition of Roman chronography. W.
(7) Of course others could argue the reverse, as did Robert Vilvain in the diatribe that ends his A Compend of Chronography (1654):
Grant, Oxford 1970) pungently upholds Christian doctrine and morality against pagan myths and emperor-worship, drawing heavily on the Old Testament and combining allegorical interpretation of Genesis with secular chronography proving the priority of Moses and the Prophets.
15: 16-21 (III, 1272, 16-17): "La prospectiva e parte di philosophia, et parte di geometria"; (chronography) Inf.
For a discussion of pastoral chronography in more general terms, see also Ettin (136-45).