chrysanthemum

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chrysanthemum

(krĭsăn`thəməm), name for a large number of annual or perennial herbs of the genus Chrysanthemum of the family Asteraceae (asteraster
[Gr.,=star], common name for the Asteraceae (Compositae), the aster family, in North America, name for plants of the genus Aster, sometimes called wild asters, and for a related plant more correctly called China aster (Callistephus chinensis
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 family), some cultivated in Asia for at least 2,000 years. The chrysanthemum is the floral emblem of the imperial family of Japan; the highest officials are honored by orders of the chrysanthemum. The flower heads are mostly late blooming and of various shades of red, yellow, and white; they range from single daisylike to large rounded or shaggy heads. Chrysanthemums were introduced to England in the late 18th cent., and today innumerable named horticultural types exist. Most are varieties of C. morifolium, a species of indeterminate origin and no longer known in the wild form. Chrysanthemums rank with roses in commercial importance as cut flowers and pot and garden plants. The pyrethrum, feverfew, and daisy belong to the same genus. Pyrethrum is used as an insecticide and feverfew as an herbal remedy for migraine. Chrysanthemum is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Asterales, family Asteraceae.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
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chrysanthemum

chrysanthemum

A wide variety of looks and beautiful colors in the Asteraceae family, which includes daisies. Tangy, slightly bitter, mums come in many colors ranging from red, white, yellow and orange to hot pink,. Flavors vary as much as the colors. Always remove the bitter flower base and use petals only. They should be blanched or steamed first and then add petals on a salad. Young leaves and stems of the Crown Daisy, are popular in Asian stir fries. Also use as seasoning.
Edible Plant Guide © 2012 Markus Rothkranz
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chrysanthemum

 

a genus of annual and perennial herbaceous shrubs of the family Compositae. There are about 150 species, growing mainly in Europe, Asia, and Africa; 70 to 80 species occur in the USSR. The plants are 0.5–1.5 m tall. The dark-green leaves are entire or dissected, and the flowers are almost all ligulate and gathered into heads. Many species have long been cultivated as ornamentals. In China, India, Korea, and other Asian countries the stems, leaves, and inflorescences are eaten as vegetables. The plants are widely used in Chinese medicine.

The best-known annual species are the tricolor chrysanthemum (C. carinatum), whose white inflorescences are tinted with yellow and red-brown circles, and the garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium), which has white double inflorescences. Both species are unfastidious, rapidly flowering garden plants; they are propagated by seeds which are sown before winter or in the spring. The corn marigold (C. segetum), an annual with yellow and white inflorescences, is grown principally for cutflowers (the flowers last well in water) and as winter pasturage; varieties include Polar Star, Star of the East, and Helios. Perennials include the Shasta daisy (C. maximum) and pyrethrum (C. coceineum), both of which are cultivated in open ground. The perennial golden-leaved feverfew (C. parthenium var. aureum) is cultivated as a border plant. There are numerous varieties and forms of C. indicum and C. coreanum.

Chrysanthemums are important in commercial floriculture in Western Europe, Japan, the USA, the USSR, and other countries. In the central and northern regions of the USSR they are grown in pots in greenhouses; in the Caucasus, Crimea, and Middle Asia they are grown in open ground. Green cuttings are rooted in hothouses in January to May. The seedlings are transplanted to pots, and then in June the plants are set out in beds. In autumn the plants are placed in cold greenhouses at temperatures of 10°–12°C. In November and December the chrysanthemums are sold. Large-flowered varieties include Indianapolis (white flowers), Fred Joule (bronze-orange flowers), Luyona (yellow flowers), and Woking Scarlet (orange-red flowers). Small-flowered varieties include Alaska (white flowers), Flem Gaunti (red flowers), and Portrait (purple flowers).

Pests of chrysanthemums include the caterpillars of moths, wireworms, and true bugs; diseases include infection caused by the leaf nematode Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi.

REFERENCES

Krasnova, N. S. Melkotsvetnye khrizantemy v ozelenenii gorodov. Moscow, 1952.
Kiselev, G. E. Tsvetovodstvo, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1964.
Spravochnik tsvetovoda. Moscow, 1971.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

chrysanthemum

of Japan. [Flower Symbolism: WB, 7: 264]

chrysanthemum

symbol of truth. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 173; Kunz, 330]
See: Honesty
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

chrysanthemum

1. any widely cultivated plant of the genus Chrysanthemum, esp C. morifolium of China, having brightly coloured showy flower heads: family Asteraceae (composites)
2. any other plant of the genus Chrysanthemum, such as oxeye daisy
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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