Chrysippus


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Chrysippus

(krĭs`ĭpəs), c.280–c.207 B.C., Greek Stoic philosopher, b. Soli, Cilicia. He was a disciple of Cleanthes and succeeded him as head of the Academy in Athens. After Zeno, the founder of StoicismStoicism
, school of philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium (in Cyprus) c.300 B.C. The first Stoics were so called because they met in the Stoa Poecile [Gr.,=painted porch], at Athens, a colonnade near the Agora, to hear their master Zeno lecture.
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, Chrysippus is considered the most eminent of the school. He systematized Stoicism and reconciled the factions that threatened to split the school. Chrysippus wrote with exquisite logic but also gave great weight to prophecy and the irrational. Only fragments of his work survive.

Bibliography

See J. B. Gould, The Philosophy of Chrysippus (1970).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chrysippus

 

Born circa 280 B.C. in Soli, in Cilicia; died 208 or 205 B.C. Greek philosopher.

Chrysippus is considered the second founder of Stoicism after Zeno of Citium and its chief systematizer. He became head of the Stoic school in Athens after the death of Cleanthes in 232 B.C. Chrysippus wrote more than 700 works, about half of which are devoted to problems of logic; however, only fragments of these works have survived. He elaborated the logic of propositions and established the principle of bivalence, which became the ontological premise of classical logic.

WORKS

Stoicorum veterum fragmenta, vols. 2–3. Edited by H. von Arnim. Stuttgart, 1968.

REFERENCE

Bréhier, E. F. Chrysippe et I’ancienne stoϊcisme. Paris, 1951.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
The nineteen following lines from another recension of lines 889-900, 924-9 are quoted by Chrysippus (in Galen).
Contrary to Chrysippus's view that "the impulse of man is reason prescribing action to him," (20) the passions (anger, shame, dread, etc.) are upheavals of thought rather than rational movements.
Por outro lado, no caso de um estupro de homens, a postura e totalmente diversa, como por exemplo, no caso de Laio, que estuprou Chrysippus, crime conhecido como "O crime de Laio", caracterizado como um exemplo de arrogancia no sentido original da palavra, ou seja, violenta indignacao.
(21) A scholiast (ancient commentator) to this play states that Hera had sent the Sphinx to Thebes as a punishment for the crime of Laius in raping a youth, Chrysippus. (22)
It has been said that Chrysippus offered the following advice: if your chariot is heading towards a precipice, stop it well before it hits the edge.
Classical first-order predicate logic considers it to be material, in the sense attributed to it by Philo of Megara (1), but, as it is well known, from ancient times, other manners to understand it have been proposed (remember, for example, the criterion provided by Chrysippus of Soli (2)), a relatively recent approach being, for instance, the one that is to be found in works such as that of Mares (3).
Enraged by the address, Cleodemus unmasks the famous Stoic founders, Chrysippus, Cleanthes and Zeno, as frauds, stating that they:
We observed two instances of interspecific mating between Danaus chrysippus and D.
Butterflies were more limited floral visitors both in abundance and diversity (number of species); only one (Danaus chrysippus) came under systematic observation and another five (Junonia almana, Anaphais aurota, Eurema hecabe, Colotis vestalis and Pieris brassicae) were rarely seen.
'Law is ruler of all', said Chrysippus; and this law was an immutable and invariable system discovered by human reason.