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Farmer on "Social Regulations of the First Ming Emperor," Romeyn Taylor on "Official and Popular Religion and the Political Organization of Chinese Society in the Ming," and Alexander Woodside on "State, Scholars, and Orthodoxy: The Ch'ing Academies." Farmer examines the various factors in the process by which the Chu Yuan-chang came to "label" certain things orthodox and others heterodox, from among the welter of ideas, beliefs, and practices that accompanied him to the throne.
Born in Kiangsu (Jiangsu) into a successful merchant family engaged in the salt trade; with his brothers, led a rebellion against the tottering Mongol Yuan dynasty, and raised a large peasant army (1353); failed to take Yang-chou (1354), but captured Soochow and Hang-chow (Hangzhou) (1356) and established the Kingdom of Wu on the lower Yangtze, governing some ten million people from Soochow; the growing power of the nearby Ming rebels under Chu Yuan-chang forced him to submit nominally to the Mongols (1357), but he maintained his independence; formally rebelled by capturing Anfeng, and launched an attack on Chu (1363); when Chu counterattacked, Chang's forces were routed, and he fled to Nanking (Nanjing), where he committed suicide (1367).
Farmer on "Social Regulations of the First Ming Emperor." Romeyn Taylor on "Official and Popular Religion and the Political Organization of Chinese Society in the Ming," and Alexander Woodside on "State, Scholars, and Orthodoxy: The Ch'ing Academies." Farmer examines the various factors in the process by which the Chu Yuan-chang came to "label" certain things orthodox and others heterodox, from among the welter of ideas, beliefs, and practices that accompanied him to the throne.