Chukchi


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chukchi

 

(Luorawetlan), the language of the Chukchi people. Chukchi is spoken by some 11,000 people (1970 census), most of them living in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and in Nizhneko-lymsk Raion of the Yakut ASSR. The language is genetically related to the Chukchi-Kamchatka group and consists of five dialects that differ only slightly: Uelen (the eastern dialect, on which the literary language is based), Chaun (western), Enmylin, Nunligran, and Khotyr’.

The phonetic system is characterized by vowel synharmony and a great variety of consonant assimilations and dissimilations. In its grammatical structure, Chukchi is a prefixal-suffixal agglutinative language. It has well-developed declension and conjugation systems. Nouns are inflected by person, and verbs have two types of conjugations: one subject and the other subject-object. A typical feature of the syntax is the presence of a nominative and an ergative construction, as well as incorporation. The vocabulary contains many borrowings from the Russian. A writing system based on the Latin alphabet was created in 1931. Since 1936 the Russian alphabet has been used.

REFERENCES

Skorik, P. Ia. Grammatika chukotskogo iazyka, part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1961. Part 2: Leningrad, 1977.
Bogoraz, V. G. Luoravetlansko-russkii (chukotsko-russkii) slovar’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Bogoras, W. “Chukchee.” In F. Boas, Handbook of American Indian Languages, part 2. Washington, D.C., 1922.

I. A. MURAV’EVA


Chukchi

 

a people that constitutes the indigenous population of the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug (formerly Chukchi National Okrug), Magadan Oblast, RSFSR. Chukchi also live in the northern part of the Koriak Autonomous Okrug (formerly Kor-iak National Okrug) and Nizhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR.

Chukchi who raise reindeer on the interior tundra call themselves chavchu (“reindeer” Chukchi), as distinct from those who inhabit the coasts, who use the term an’kalyn (coast dweller). The general self-designation— luoravetlan (real person)—has not become established as the designation for the people as a whole. The Chukchi number 14,000 (1979 census). They speak mainly the Chukchi language. Their religion was shamanism and various cults centering on the family, hunting, and fishing.

The Chukchi first came into contact with Russians in 1642 on the Alazeia River, but they remained virtually independent from the tsarist administration until the 19th century. A natural barter economy was maintained between the nomadic reindeer-raising Chukchi and the settled maritime Chukchi, who hunted marine mammals. Under Soviet power, radical changes have taken place in the Chukchi way of life: reindeer raising has been reorganized, and large sovkhozes and kolkhozes have been established; modern technology has been introduced in the hunting of marine mammals. Educational materials and literature are now published in the Chukchi language.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Vdovin, I. S. Ocherki istorii i etnografii chukchei. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Gurvich, I. S. Etnicheskaia istoriia severo-vostoka Sibiri. Moscow, 1966.
Ocherki istorii Chukotki s drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei. Novosibirsk, 1974.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
We present information about bowhead and gray whale distributions, sighting rates, and habitat preferences from data collected during aerial surveys conducted in the eastern Chukchi Sea in summer and fall from 2009 to 2015.
In an editorial roundtable discussion with American Petroleum Institute President and CEO Mike Sommers, he explained, "One of the things that we know through all the testing that's already been done in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas is that resource is tremendous, and we actually would expect, once those resources are developed, that it's going to be more oil in that area than we've seen in the Atlantic or Pacific combined."
The main goals of these flights were to obtain a synoptic map of ocean temperatures in the northeast Chukchi Sea at the sea ice minimum (10 September 2016) and to deploy two ALAMO PT floats to monitor the rate of cooling into freeze-up.
gracilis (one from the Chukchi Sea and another from near Kodiak Island, Alaska) were examined separately (Table 1).
Increasing evidence suggests an active spring migration of some bearded seals from the south through the Bering Strait to the north to summering areas near the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea (Burns and Frost, 1979; Cameron et al., 2010).
The exploratory well was the first in the Chukchi in 24 years.
Shell obtained the leases in the Chukchi during the administration of former President George W Bush.
The George W Bush administration proposed opening just about all of the Beaufort and Chukchi to exploration.
But it's a devastating blow - and a disaster in waiting - for environmentalists, fisheries and Alaskan natives who understand that the Chukchi Sea is one of the most dangerous places in the world to drill for oil.
Federal estimates show that the Chukchi and Beaufort seas could hold 26 billion barrels of recoverable oil, and many Alaska leaders are eager to begin drilling in the area to create jobs and fund state government projects and services.
"We are also seeing more gray whale calves in the Chukchi Sea than we have in recent years."
Page-filling color photo portraits of polar bears, a Chukchi Eskimo dancer in traditional dress, Northern lights, Mt.