Chukchi


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Chukchi

 

(Luorawetlan), the language of the Chukchi people. Chukchi is spoken by some 11,000 people (1970 census), most of them living in the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug and in Nizhneko-lymsk Raion of the Yakut ASSR. The language is genetically related to the Chukchi-Kamchatka group and consists of five dialects that differ only slightly: Uelen (the eastern dialect, on which the literary language is based), Chaun (western), Enmylin, Nunligran, and Khotyr’.

The phonetic system is characterized by vowel synharmony and a great variety of consonant assimilations and dissimilations. In its grammatical structure, Chukchi is a prefixal-suffixal agglutinative language. It has well-developed declension and conjugation systems. Nouns are inflected by person, and verbs have two types of conjugations: one subject and the other subject-object. A typical feature of the syntax is the presence of a nominative and an ergative construction, as well as incorporation. The vocabulary contains many borrowings from the Russian. A writing system based on the Latin alphabet was created in 1931. Since 1936 the Russian alphabet has been used.

REFERENCES

Skorik, P. Ia. Grammatika chukotskogo iazyka, part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1961. Part 2: Leningrad, 1977.
Bogoraz, V. G. Luoravetlansko-russkii (chukotsko-russkii) slovar’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Bogoras, W. “Chukchee.” In F. Boas, Handbook of American Indian Languages, part 2. Washington, D.C., 1922.

I. A. MURAV’EVA


Chukchi

 

a people that constitutes the indigenous population of the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug (formerly Chukchi National Okrug), Magadan Oblast, RSFSR. Chukchi also live in the northern part of the Koriak Autonomous Okrug (formerly Kor-iak National Okrug) and Nizhnekolymsk Raion, Yakut ASSR.

Chukchi who raise reindeer on the interior tundra call themselves chavchu (“reindeer” Chukchi), as distinct from those who inhabit the coasts, who use the term an’kalyn (coast dweller). The general self-designation— luoravetlan (real person)—has not become established as the designation for the people as a whole. The Chukchi number 14,000 (1979 census). They speak mainly the Chukchi language. Their religion was shamanism and various cults centering on the family, hunting, and fishing.

The Chukchi first came into contact with Russians in 1642 on the Alazeia River, but they remained virtually independent from the tsarist administration until the 19th century. A natural barter economy was maintained between the nomadic reindeer-raising Chukchi and the settled maritime Chukchi, who hunted marine mammals. Under Soviet power, radical changes have taken place in the Chukchi way of life: reindeer raising has been reorganized, and large sovkhozes and kolkhozes have been established; modern technology has been introduced in the hunting of marine mammals. Educational materials and literature are now published in the Chukchi language.

REFERENCES

Narody Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Vdovin, I. S. Ocherki istorii i etnografii chukchei. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Gurvich, I. S. Etnicheskaia istoriia severo-vostoka Sibiri. Moscow, 1966.
Ocherki istorii Chukotki s drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei. Novosibirsk, 1974.
References in periodicals archive ?
The spring migration of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Sea stock of bowhead whales passes through nearshore leads in the ice between Point Hope and Point Barrow, Alaska, in the northeastern Chukchi Sea (Moore and Reeves, 1993).
The Aiviq, which means walrus in Inupiaq, is a $200 million ice-breaking, anchor-handling, tug supply vessel built specifically for Shell's drilling operations in the Beaufort and Chukchi.
But it's a devastating blow - and a disaster in waiting - for environmentalists, fisheries and Alaskan natives who understand that the Chukchi Sea is one of the most dangerous places in the world to drill for oil.
Federal estimates show that the Chukchi and Beaufort seas could hold 26 billion barrels of recoverable oil, and many Alaska leaders are eager to begin drilling in the area to create jobs and fund state government projects and services.
We are also seeing more gray whale calves in the Chukchi Sea than we have in recent years.
The tide has been edited online to reflect that, as of this writing, Shell has not received final approval to begin exploratory drilling in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas.
No, this is what the middle of the day looked like for scientists and crew who voyaged to the Chukchi Sea this past winter.
In August, it approved an exploratory drilling plan for the Beaufort Sea, and two weeks ago it upheld the validity of leases in the neighboring Chukchi Sea that had been challenged by environmental groups.
The measurements took place in the Chukchi Sea, near Alaska, the Barents, Kara and Laptev Seas, near Finland and Russia.
Andrews and Creed are professors of journalism at the Kotzebue branch of the University of Alaska, Chukchi College.
The Company has made a decision to expand the business plan of Kenai Offshore so as to allow for the possibility that the proposed jack-up rig could also be used as a primary drilling rig for anticipated drilling operations by multi-national companies in the Chukchi Sea, and/or Beaufort Sea located offshore the North Slope, Alaska (see attached map) or as a relief rig (which could become a requirement under new OCS regulations).
The Fish and Wildlife Service acknowledged that the designation, which includes swaths of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas off northern Alaska, "encompass (es) areas where oil and gas exploration activities are known to occur.