Church of Scotland

Also found in: Dictionary, Acronyms, Wikipedia.

Scotland, Church of,

the established national church of Scotland, Presbyterian (see PresbyterianismPresbyterianism,
form of Christian church organization based on administration by a hierarchy of courts composed of clerical and lay presbyters. Holding a position between episcopacy (government by bishops) and Congregationalism (government by local congregation),
..... Click the link for more information.
) in form. The first Protestants in Scotland, led by Patrick HamiltonHamilton, Patrick,
1504?–1528, Scottish Protestant martyr. While at St. Andrews, he was suspected of Lutheran sympathies. He fled (1527) to Germany, where, during his short stay, he met Luther and Melanchthon.
..... Click the link for more information.
, were predominantly Lutheran. However, with the return of John KnoxKnox, John,
1514?–1572, Scottish religious reformer, founder of Scottish Presbyterianism. Early Career as a Reformer

Little is recorded of his life before 1545. He probably attended St. Andrews Univ.
..... Click the link for more information.
 from Geneva, the Scottish Reformation came under the influence of Calvinism.

Following the signing of the First Covenant in 1557 by the great barons and other nobles, Parliament abolished (1560) the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland. A Reformed confession of faith was adopted, and the church was organized along Presbyterian lines. The first general assembly of the church met in Edinburgh, and the First Book of Discipline (1560) was drawn up. The Second Book of Discipline (1581) was ratified by Parliament in 1592.

This definitely settled the Presbyterian form of polity and the Calvinistic doctrine as the recognized Protestant establishment in the country. But under James VI (from 1603, James IJames I,
1566–1625, king of England (1603–25) and, as James VI, of Scotland (1567–1625). James's reign witnessed the beginnings of English colonization in North America (Jamestown was founded in 1607) and the plantation of Scottish settlers in Ulster.
..... Click the link for more information.
 of England) and the other Stuart rulers who followed, periods of restored episcopacy interrupted the progress of the new organization and were accompanied by confusion and protest.

In 1638 the National Covenant, a promise to defend the Reformed religion, was signed; in 1643 the Solemn League and Covenant was signed in England as well as Scotland. In 1647 the Westminster Confession was accepted. In 1689, with William and Mary on the throne of England, religious liberty was secured, and the Act of Settlement (1690) ensured the establishment of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Confirmation of its status was made in 1707, when the kingdoms of Scotland and England were united.

Questions regarding the connection between church and state caused division and resulted in secessions from time to time, but there was no diversity in faith. The notable early secessions were the Original Secession in 1733 and the Relief in 1761. The most extensive break occurred in 1843, when the Free Church of Scotland was formed under the leadership of Thomas ChalmersChalmers, Thomas
, 1780–1847, Scottish preacher, theologian, and philanthropist, leader of the Free Church of Scotland. His preaching and his interest in philanthropic work during his ministry (1815–23) in Glasgow brought wide recognition.
..... Click the link for more information.
. In 1847 the United Secession Church joined with the majority of the congregations of the Relief Church to form the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland. In 1900 this body merged with the Free Church to form the United Free Church of Scotland, which in 1929 rejoined the Church of Scotland. However, some remnants of the Free Church and the United Free Church did not return.

Milestones in the separation of the church from the state were the transfer (1872) of church schools to civil authorities and the abolition (1874) of ecclesiastical patronage. The spiritual independence of the Church of Scotland was recognized by Acts of Parliament in 1921 and 1925. A merger proposed in the 1960s between the Church of England, the Church of Scotland, the Presbyterian Church of England, and the Episcopal Church of Scotland did not take place. The church has about 640,000 members (1999).


See J. H. S. Burleigh, A Church History of Scotland (1960); R. S. Louden, The True Face of the Kirk (1963); G. Donaldson, Scotland—Church and Nation through Sixteen Centuries (2d ed. 1972); J. Kirk, Patterns of Reform (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
When she was a year into her course at Glasgow University, the Church of Scotland made the decision to admit women as ministers.
JOHN VAUDRY: Why did 500 people walk away from the Church of Scotland in 1843?
By brazenly dismissing Jewish self-understanding of its own Bible--the Torah, the Church of Scotland has disregarded nearly five decades of progress in Jewish-Christian theological dialogue by promoting religious principles which deny the legitimacy of Judaism and were used for centuries to justify the brutal repression of Jews.
The very real possibility of a split within the Church of Scotland should a union go ahead was used as a reason to reject the proposals outright.
For many of the traditional mission fields of the Church of Scotland, such as China or India, it would be neither appropriate nor possible to send long-term missionaries.
The Church of Scotland invests in a number of sectors of the market, but not in tobacco, alcohol, armaments or gambling.
Rowling, a member in good standing of the Church of Scotland, declined to comment.
The Pope expressed his appreciation of the Church of Scotland in its commitment to reconciliation.
Fortunately for historians, if not for the Scots themselves, the Church of Scotland was rigorously, not to say obsessively, concerned with the sexual conduct of its flock.
And all delegates to the Church of Scotland General Assembly in Edinburgh in May received a copy of the Guide.
As a graduate from the theological college of the Free Church of Scotland, this reviewer must clarify that actually the name "wee free" was used to distinguish the members of the Free Church of Scotland from those of the established Church of Scotland.
The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland has paid tribute to a Paisley worker who gave her life to help protect Jewish schoolgirls during the Second WorldWar.

Full browser ?