Cicer


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cicer

 

a genus of annual and perennial herbaceous plants of the family Leguminosae. It includes 27 species. Wild species are found primarily in Middle Asia, Asia Minor, Afghanistan, Iran, and Ethiopia. One annual species, the chick-pea (Cicer arietinutri), is under cultivation; it is divided into four subspecies: Cicer a. orientale, Cicer a. asiaticum, Cicer a. eurasiaticum, and Cicer a. mediterraneum. The chick-pea, a shrub measuring 20–70 cm tall, has oddly pinnate leaves (11–17 leaflets), which are covered with glandular hairs that secrete oxalic, citric, and malic acids. The solitary flowers are white, pink, or red. The fruit is a pod with one, two, or, more rarely, four angular seeds. The seeds are variously colored. One thousand seeds from medium-sized varieties weigh between 200 and 300 g. The chick-pea is photophilic and thermophilic; it can tolerate severe droughts and saline soils. The plant grows best in chernozems and chestnut soils.

Chick-pea seeds contain up to 30 percent protein, up to 7 percent fat, and more than 60 percent nonnitrogenous extractive substances. They also contain vitamin B1. The seeds are used in food, in the manufacture of confectionery products and macaroni, and for livestock feed.

The chick-pea, which is native to Asia, has been cultivated since ancient times in India, Pakistan, and Ethiopia. In the USSR it is cultivated in Middle Asia, Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, the southern Ukraine, and the Northern Caucasus (in small areas).

Between 1948 and 1972 the worldwide planted area of chickpeas was 10.1–11.8 million hectares (ha); the principal plantings were in India and Pakistan. The average seed yield during this period was 4.9–6.5 quintals per ha (in the USSR, 8–10 quintals per ha; the largest yields were 18–20 quintals per ha). The best varieties in the USSR are Sovkhoznyi and Iubileinyi. It is good to use the chick-pea in crop rotations before cotton and wheat. The crop is responsive to phosphorus fertilizer. Drill seeding or sowing in strips is used. Between 0.6 and 0.8 million seeds are sown per ha, at depths to 6–8 cm.

REFERENCES

Miroshnichenko, N. I., and A. M. Pavlova. Nut. Moscow-Leningrad, 1953.
Livanov, K. V. Nut na Iugo-Vostoke. Saratov, 1963.

K. V. LIVANOV [18—48—4]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Screening of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) induce mutants against Fusarium wilt.
Suppression of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Fusarium wilt by Bacillus subtillis and Trichoderma harzianum.
[8.] Muhammad Z, Shahid I, Shakeel A, Muhammad I, Abdul N and MI Bhanger Nutritional and compositional study of Desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars grown in Punjab, Pakistan.
Cother, "Identification and control of root-rot fungi in Cicer arietinum (chickpea)," Plant Disease Reporter, vol.
(1999) hidrolizaron concentrados de Cicer arietinum con alcalasa y una mezcla de aminopeptidasas, reduciendo la AIT en 80% y encontrando que la reduccion de actividad de inhibicion de tripsina depende de la enzima utilizada y de la estruetura de la proteina hidrolizada.
(Eapen and George, 1993) and in Cicer arietinum (Polisetty et al., 1997) were reported the influence of orientation on regeneration.
(2007) sugieren que la deficiencia de fosforo deteriora la fijacion simbiotica del [N.sub.2] a traves del retraso en el desarrollo del nodulo y del inicio de la funcion nodular e Islam y Ali (2009) encontraron en Cicer arietinum un aumento del nitrogeno fijado con la aplicacion de 80 kgP [ha.sup.-1].
These plants included Coriandrum sativum, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Nigella sativa, Curcuma longa (various plants parts used as spices, leaves of Allium cepa also eaten as vegetable), Amaranthus tricolor, Colocasia esculenta, Typhonium giganteum, Basella rubra, Spinacia oleracea, Ipomoea aquatica, Cucurbita pepo, Lagenaria siceraria, Cicer arietinum, Corchorus capsularis, Centella asiatica (various plant parts eaten as vegetable), Brassica napus (leaves and stems eaten as vegetable, seed used to extract oil), Momordica charantia, Citrus grandis, Capsicum frutescens (fruits eaten), Cajanus cajan, Lathyrus sativus, and Vigna mungo (seeds boiled and eaten as lentil soup).
Management options for minimizing the damage by ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).