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Related to Cichorium: Cichorium endivia



(chicory), a genus of perennial, biennial, or annual herbs of the family Compositae. A milky sap is found throughout the plants. The leaves vary in shape from pinnatifid to toothed; the basal leaves are in a rosette formation. The inflorescences are heads borne in the axils of the leaves and on top of the stem and branches. The ligulate, bisexual flowers are light or dark blue, bluish pink, or whitish. The fruit is an achene with a very short pappus.

There are eight to ten species native to Eurasia and North Africa; the plants have been introduced into the temperate and subtropical belts of both hemispheres. There are four species in the USSR. The common chicory (C. intybus), a perennial with a long taproot, grows in dry-valley meadows, on the edges of forests and fields, on fallow land, in wastelands, amid crops (mainly forage grasses), and along roads and ditches. The plant yields a substantial amount of nectar and is eaten as pasturage by livestock. The roots contain the polysaccharide inulin and the bitter glycoside intybin. Common chicory is cultivated as a biennial; commonly grown are the Borisovskii and Ispolinskii varieties. The thickened roots of cultivated forms are used as a coffee substitute and an additive in coffee; they are also used in the production of high-quality alcohol. The etiolated leaves are used as salad. The roots of wild chicory are used as an agent for increasing the appetite and for improving digestion. A tea made from the roots has antimicrobial and astringent properties.

The endive (C. endivia) is cultivated in Mediterranean countries and the southern regions of the USSR as a salad plant. It is unknown in the wild.


Ipat’ev, A. N. Ovoshchnye rasteniia zemnogo sham. Minsk, 1966.


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The antioxidant properties of several varieties of Cichorium genus vegetables have been attributed, in part, to the presence of phytochemicals including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, mono- and diglycosides of flavonoids, and anthocyanins.
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Otros generos responsables o sospechosos de causar alergias en alguna forma son Andryala, Arctotheca, Argyranthemum, Arnoseris, Bellis, Carlina, Cichorium, Cirsium, Cnidoscolus, Coleostephus, Crepis, Dendranthema, Dittrichia, Echinops, Galactites, Gerbera, Helenium, Hieracium, Inula, Iva, Lactuca, Lapsana, Phagnalon, Pulicaria, Sonchus, Tagetes, Tolpis, etc.
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Cichorium intybus and Solanum nigrum grow on the plains of India up to 2100 metres in regions with a dry, temperate climate.
If you are fond of sharper tastes in your salads, you might have used endives and chicory, both forms of Cichorium.
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There were many exotic species on tallgrass plots, including the forbs Cichorium intybus, Plantago lanceolata, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium pratense and a variety of cool-season meadow grasses planted for pasture improvement (Agrostis stolonifera, Festuca pratensis, Phleum pratense and Poa pratensis).
Time relations and sexual reproduction in Cichorium and other angiosperms as compared with archegoniates.