Cilicia

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Cilicia

(sĭlĭsh`ə), ancient region of SE Asia Minor, in present S Turkey, between the Mediterranean and the Taurus range. It included a high and barren plateau, Cilicia Trachia or Cilicia Tracheia, and a fertile plain, Cilicia Pedias. The area was under the domination of the Assyrian Empire before it became part of the Persian Empire. Greeks early settled on the coast, and Cilicia was hellenized to a great extent. In the Hellenistic period the region was disputed by the Seleucid kings of Syria and the Ptolemaic kings of Egypt. Tarsus and Seleucia (not to be confused with the port of Antioch) were the principal cities. They flourished after the region became part of the Roman Empire (a portion in 102 B.C., but most of it only after Pompey's campaign against the pirates there in 67 B.C.). Later Cilicia was included in the Byzantine Empire and in the 8th cent. was invaded by the Arabs. In 1080, Prince Reuben set up an Armenian state there, which became a kingdom in 1098 and is generally called Little Armenia. The Armenians cooperated with the rulers of the neighboring Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. They maintained their independence against the Turks until 1375, when the Mamluks conquered them. (For the later history of the region, see ArmeniaArmenia
, Armenian Hayastan, officially Republic of Armenia, republic (2005 est. pop. 2,983,000), 11,500 sq mi (29,785 sq km), in the S Caucasus. Armenia is bounded by Turkey on the west, Azerbaijan on the east (the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan is on its
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.) Cilicia is mentioned in the Bible (Acts 6.9; 21.39; 22.3; Gal. 1.21).

Bibliography

See T. S. Boase, ed., Cilician Kingdom of Armenia (1979).

Cilicia

 

(also Little Armenia), a mountainous region on the upper reaches of the Euphrates, Lycus, andHalys rivers. The formation of the Armenian people and the ancient Armenian language is linked with this territory, which was called the land of the Hayasa in Hittite sources.

It was in Cilicia that the first alliance of tribes headed by the Hays—a designation which is still used as the native name of the Armenian people—was formed. Cilicia became part of the Achaemenid state. Under Alexander the Great, Cilicia came under Macedonian rule, and from A . D. 322 it was an independent kingdom with its capital at Ani-Kamakh. At the end of the second century B. C., Cilicia became part of the realm of Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, who erected 75 fortified castles in that region. After his death, Cilicia passed from one Roman ruler to another. Its administrative boundaries shifted constantly. Under the emperor Vespasian it became part of the Roman province of Cappadocia; under Diocletian at the end of the third century A. D. it was made into a separate province, and under Theodosius it was divided into two provinces.

REFERENCE

Ocherki istorii SSSR: Pervobytno-obshchinnyi stroi i drevneishie gosudarstva na territorii SSSR. Moscow, 1956.

A. I. BOLTUNOVA and G. KH. SARKISIAN


Cilicia

 

an ancient district in Asia Minor, in the southern part of modern central Turkey. The region was divided into two parts: Cilicia Trachea (the Taurus Mountains) and Cilicia Pedias (the territory adjoining the Mediterranean Sea). The name “Cilicia” is first encountered in Assyrian inscriptions (Hilakku) in the designation “Cilicia the Rugged.” In the second millennium B.C., Cilicia became part of the Hittite empire. From the 12th to sixth centuries B.C., one or more independent kingdoms existed in Cilicia. In the sixth century B.C., the district became part of the Persian Empire of the Achaemenidae. In 333 B.C., Alexander the Macedonian conquered Cilicia. From 297 to 190, the region was under the dominion of the Seleucids. In 102, Cilicia was conquered by Rome, and it was finally pacified in 67 B.C. Around A.D. 200, Cilicia was divided into two provinces: Cilicia I and Cilicia II. In the Middle Ages, Byzantium, the Arabs, and the Seljuks struggled over the district. From 1080 to 1375, the Cilician Armenian state ruled by the Rubenid dynasty existed in the district, until it was seized by the Mamelukes. In 1515 the Turks conquered Cilicia.

References in periodicals archive ?
Dramatic increases in human population along the coastal regions and associated increase in nutrient inputs from industrial, domestic and agricultural sources have enhanced eutrophication in the coastal waters of Cilician basin.
Zooplankton population and its time series in the Northern Cilician Basin-Turkish Coast.
124) Abu l-Fida' seems to indicate that the main beneficiaries of this coastal destruction were Gaza, which became the main port for traders from the Hijaz, and the Cilician port of Ayas in the Armenian kingdom, which became the preferred port for Christian merchants from Europe; between them, Yafa was the only port he identified as still active.
We have granted a license to the Cilician College, a higher school that teaches students according to Syrian educational
Ghazarian, The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians witb the Latins, 1080-1393, Richmond, VA: Curzon, 2000, 84, 86; Anthony W.
Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani) and Cilician fir (Abies cilicica) accompany junipers.
Esther Velthoen examines Dutch attempts to tame coastal raiding up until 1905, efforts that have some remarkable similarities to Roman attempts to curb Cilician piracy.
13) In his biography of Julius Caesar, Plutarch tells of Cilician pirates who captured Caesar on the Mediterranean, holding him captive for thirty-eight days until ransom was paid.
The first speciment of Schizodactylus inexpectatus (Werner, 1901) (Orthoptera: Schizodactylidae) was accidentally found from the Cilician Taurus near to Gulek in Turkey by MARTIN HOLTZ in 1897 and described as Comicus inexpectatus by WERNER in 1901 (Ramme, 1931; Uvarov, 1952).
Cirlot in his Dictionary of Symbols itemizes many other instances that link the horn with nature's fertility and gods--the Cilician horned god of agriculture holding handfuls of corn, the African rhino's horn prized as an aphrodisiac, the horn as decorative motif on Asian temples, the cycle of the Zodiac initiated by Aries and Taurus, both horned.
While the activities associated with the Cilician peace-keeper in Xenophon correspond closely to the sphere of operation of the eirenarch, Xenophon's wording is sufficiently loose to refer to any official whose job it was to keep the peace, and since there must have been people in charge of putting down civil unrest in Cilicia long before the position of eirenarch was created, it has been argued that the references to a peace-keeper do not help to establish a terminus post quem.
in the rugged hills near Coracesium in Cilicia, an untamed region along the coast of southwestern Asia Minor, and the Cilician pirates, possibly the most successful race of brigands the world has ever seen, were surrendering to the Roman general Pompey.