Bien qu'ils aient prepare leur developpement, le zoopraxiscope de Muybridge (1872-1885) ou le chronophotographe de Marey (1882) auxquels Bergson songe, ne ressemblent pas au cinematographe
des freres Lumiere ou au cinema que nous connaissons actuellement.
For Bresson, the cinematographe
is an art of relations and a process of constant transformation, as he vividly describes in one of the most frequently quoted passages from Notes: " My movie is born first in my head, dies on paper; is resuscitated by the living persons and real objects I use, which are killed on film but, placed in a certain order and projected on to a screen, come to life again like flowers in water."
In France, the Lumiere brothers, Auguste (1862-1954) and Louis (1864-1948), developed a much more convenient camera projector, the Cinematographe
(A pity, as Andre Gaudreault and Philippe Gauthier in their comparative analysis of the conference-avec-projection and the projection-avec-boniment unveil "une certaine forme de continuite" between "la lantern magique et le cinematographe
," in that "le cinematographe
serait, en quelque sorte, un chassis passe-vues ameliore" (237)).
The wealthy businessman wanted to buy their cinematographe
machine but they refused, determined to preserve its secrets for themselves.
The beginnings of cinema in India go back to 1896, when the first cinematographe
show was presented at the Watson's hotel in Bombay.
projected images on screen in one-to-many fashion, which made cinema a collective medium for the masses (Israel, 1998).
The word cinema was French in origin and a derivation of the word cinematographe
was invented by the Lumiere brothers and had its provenance in the Greek word kinein meaning to move.
C'est alors qu'il a une double revelation : celle de son homosexualite, puisqu'il << trompe >> son frere avec un autre homme, dans un cinematographe
a Tanger, et de sa solitude dans le fantasme, la conquete de la culture occidentale, qu'il aimait et ou il aimait se retrouver.
au cine-roman et du theatre au cinematographe
The zoopraxiscope was the prototype of what the brothers Lumiere would name a cinematographe
camera 20 years later.