Cinq Mars, Henri Coëffier Ruzé d'Effiat, marquis de

Cinq Mars, Henri Coëffier Ruzé d'Effiat, marquis de

(äNrē` kōĕfyā` rüzā` dĕfyä` märkē` də săNmär`), 1620–42, French conspirator. Introduced at court by Cardinal Richelieu at an early age, Cinq Mars rapidly rose in King Louis XIII's favor and was made master of the horse. He joined in a conspiracy with Frédéric Maurice de BouillonBouillon, Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de
, c.1605–1652, French general; son of Henri de Bouillon. Brought up a Protestant, he campaigned in Holland under his uncle Maurice of Nassau. In 1635 he entered the service of France.
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 and Gaston d'OrléansOrléans, Gaston, duc d'
, 1608–60, son of King Henry IV and Marie de' Medici, younger brother of Louis XIII. He took part in many of the conspiracies of the great nobles against Louis XIII's minister, Cardinal Richelieu, and several times fled from France.
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 against the cardinal. The discovery of a secret treaty they had signed with Spain led to their arrest, and Cinq Mars and his friend, François de Thou, were executed. The conspiracy formed the basis of Alfred de Vigny's novel Cinq-Mars and Gounod's opera of the same name.

Bibliography

See P. Erlanger, Richelieu and the Affair of Cinq-Mars (tr. 1971).

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