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wool carders and other hired workers in cloth-making shops in Florence and various other Italian cities in the 14th century. The ciompi constituted approximately 25 percent of the population of Florence. They worked 14–16 hours a day; their extremely low wages were in reality reduced further by a harsh system of fines and did not amount to a living wage. Shop owners had the right to discharge ciompi from their jobs without warning. The ciompi were not guild members and therefore had no political rights. Their ranks were replenished by impoverished peasants and artisans.

In 1345 a spontaneous strike of the ciompi took place in Florence, and in 1371 there were disturbances in Perugia and Siena.

In 1378 the ciompi of Florence mounted a revolt, which was joined by small-scale artisans; the revolt lasted from June 22 to August 31. The most important demands of the ciompi were for a 50-percent increase in wages and the granting of political rights—the securing of one-fourth of the seats in the government and the post of gonfalonier of justice, the formation of a ciompi guild (which would have granted the ciompi full citizenship), the formation of a people’s militia, and the establishment of equality of all inhabitants of the city. The rebels seized the palace of the podesta, drove the government from its residence, and formed a new government composed of three ciompi, three small-scale artisans, and three members of the popolo grasso (rich urban upper class). The ciompi formed a people’s militia and a ciompi guild. The popolo grasso managed to have Michele di Lando, who had been a wool carder and overseer of hired workers prior to the revolt, made head of the government. With Michele di Lando in power, they were able to organize a starvation blockade of the city; the owners of the cloth-making shops, which had been closed since the first days of the revolt, refused to open their shops, and the ciompi were thus left wihtout any means of earning a living.

In August 1378, having ascertained that Michele di Lando had betrayed them, the ciompi formed a new revolutionary government (called the Eight Saints of the People of God), headed by the wool carder Bartolo di Jacopo. They tried to seize power, demanding that the old government submit to the new. Michele di Lando helped the popólo grasso bring troops up to the city. At this stage of the revolt the small-scale artisans, frightened by the radical nature of the ciompi program, deserted the ciompi. The revolt was suppressed, and its leaders were executed.

The ciompi revolt demonstrated the relatively high (for the 14th century) level of political consciousness of the Italian pre-proletariat, which was the first in European history to demand political rights and thus paved the way for the concept of universal equality.


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Un problema anadido es la menguante existencia del lector de libro completo", dijo Valeria Ciompi, editora de Alianza Editorial, en el festejo de los primeros 50 anos de la coleccion Libros de Bolsillo.
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I ciompi, i pezzenti, i ribelli, il carname delle undici battaglie, i rifiuti di tutti i settori e di tutti i reticolati, abbandonarono le trincee e si gettarono contro il paese alzando su gli elmi bruni e sui torrenti di popolo grigioverde i trofei e le insegne della santa e cristianissima fanteria: giubbe lacere e sforacchiate, farsetti a maglia unti e pidocchiosi, elmetti contorti dalle scheggie, scarpe sfondate.
Una de ellas es la que se encuentra en el Libro III de la Historia de Florencia, en donde le llama Giovanni Aguto, y cuenta como Florencia lo contrato primero y licencio despues en el marco de las luchas civiles entre el pueblo y los nobles, asi como entre guelfos y gibelinos que precedieron a la rebelion de los ciompi de 1378 (Maquiavelo, 2009: 172, 176).
A range of psychological interventions that acknowledge the psycho-social causes of psychosis have been found to be effective, at least for some patients (Bentall, 2009; Bola, Lehtinen, Cullberg, & Ciompi, 2009; Gleeson, Killackey, & Krstev, 2008; Morrison, 2009; Read et al.
Tras la revuelta de los Ciompi, los banqueros del cambio de Florencia, que anteriormente actuaban en un ambito mas domestico, fueron movilizados por la elite integrandose en las redes del comercio internacional.
The fact that the ciompi were totally unknown to the wool-makers, who dealt only with the fattori, coupled with the simple nature of their duties, may explain the comparatively low cost of the preliminary operations in the woolen process in the sixteenth-century workshops, which had experienced a steady reduction during the previous two centuries.
As the century went on, successive political regimes came and went, including the well-known Ciompi (woolcarders) regime of 1378-1382 that gave previously disenfranchised, poor workers a brief hold on political power.
Especially in the years following the Ciompi uprising of 1378, different magistracies were devised to monitor exiles and cope with the problems they presented.
Warfare was endemic and destructive (especially in France and Italy), regional political rebellions more frequent (the Ciompi labor revolt in Florence dated 1378), and the imprint of towns upon countryside and culture now magnifying.