i], respectively, show the ith plaintext pixel, the key stream of random number, and the ciphertext
Finally, PHR owner uploads the ciphertext
to CSP along with a description of access policy ([M.
To show that only receivers can decrypt ciphertexts
, we defined two attack models that either the PKG and the service providing server or the e-mail server collude with an adversary, and proved that the proposed scheme is secure against passive attack in the models.
1) The algorithm in  assumes that the inputs are cleartexts, not ciphertexts
Adaptive CCA Broadcast Encryption with Constant-Size Secret Keys and Ciphertexts
(data in encrypted form) bears roughly the same resemblance to plaintext (data in its original form) as a hamburger does to a T-bone steak.
Independently of the choice of cipher, confounders are not needed in protocols where all ciphertexts
generated are guaranteed to be different.
The cipher has a striking resemblance to the class of Feistel ciphers which include the Data Encryption Standard , where the basic building block works on the two halves of the ciphertext
In FKS, each trapdoor consists of all the ciphertexts
of possible misspellings of w'.
discusses about Proxy re-encryption (PRE) which employs a proxy with a re-encryption key for decryption of ciphertext
encrypted by user's public key into those that can be decrypted by user's private key.
And the multicast packets are transmitted with the ciphertext
encrypted by AES.
The proposed scheme has the nice arbitration mechanism allowing the designated recipient to convert the authenticated ciphertext
into an ordinary signature without any extra computation efforts or communication overheads for the public arbitration.