spice

(redirected from Circuit simulation)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal.

spice,

aromatic vegetable product used as a flavoring or condiment. The term was formerly applied also to pungent or aromatic foods (e.g., gingerbread and currants), to ingredients of incense or perfume (e.g., myrrh), and to embalming agents. Modern usage tends to limit the term to flavorings used in food or drinks, although many spices have additional commercial uses, e.g., as ingredients of medicines, perfumes, incense, and soaps.

Spices include stimulating condiments, e.g., pepper, mustard, and horseradish; aromatic spices, e.g., cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, anise, and mace; and sweet herbs, e.g., thyme, marjoram, sage, and mint. Spices are taken from the part of the plant richest in flavor—bark, stem, flower bud, fruit, seed, or leaf. Although spices are very commonly used in the form of a powder, some are used as tinctures obtained by extracting essential oils, and many are used whole.

Garlic, chives, caraway, mustard, and many herbs grow in temperate regions, and vanilla, allspice, and red pepper are indigenous to the West Indies and South America. Most of the major spices, however, are produced in the East Indies and tropical Asia.

The Spice Trade

Spices from India, E Asia, and the East Indies were in demand from ancient times; they were carried by caravan across China and India to ports of the Mediterranean Sea or the Persian Gulf and thence to the marketplaces of Athens, Rome, and other cities, where they were sold at exorbitant prices. Certain spices were used as media of exchange; Alaric I is said to have demanded pepper as part of the ransom for raising the siege of Rome in 408. In the early Middle Ages few spices reached the markets of Europe, but trade was slowly resumed in the 9th cent. and was later greatly stimulated by the Crusades. In Western Europe the desire for spices arose in part from the monotony of the diet and from poor facilities for the preservation of food, especially of meat.

When overland trade routes from Asia were cut off by the Mongols and Turks, the European demand for spices was a major factor in motivating a search for new trade routes around Africa and across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The high price obtainable for spices was partially responsible for the bitter rivalry of European powers for the control of spice-producing areas and of trade routes. Even after adequate supplies of spices were found and means of transportation made available, the cost long remained very high in Europe and in America. This was largely because of the expenses incident to attempts to retain monopoly of markets and to deliberately limit crops in order to secure high prices.

Although spices today are still important in trade, their per capita use for flavoring food has declined in Western civilizations, and certain spices must compete with synthetic flavorings. The demand for spices has remained large in Asia, where spices have a wider social and ceremonial significance than they ever attained in the West.

Bibliography

See J. W. Parry, Spices (2 vol., 1969); F. Rosengarten, Jr., The Book of Spices (rev. ed. 1973); J. Heinerman, Complete Book of Spices (1983).; A. Dalby, Dangerous Tastes: The Story of Spices (2000); J. Turner, Spice (2004).

Spice

 

a dried vegetable product containing piquant and aromatic substances and used as seasonings to improve the flavor, digestibility, and assimilation of food. Spices usually contain essential oils, glycosides, and tannins. They are used by the food-processing industry (in canning and in the production of confections, baked goods, and liqueurs and spirits). Spices are also used in medicine and perfumes. The most valuable spices are obtained from tropical plants. Spices are available in many forms: seeds (nutmeg, mustard), fruits (pepper, vanilla, anise), flowers or flower parts (capers, cloves), leaves (laurel), bark (cinnamon), or roots (ginger).

REFERENCE

Pokhlebkin, V. V. Vse o prianostiakh. Moscow, 1974.

spice

[spīs]
(food engineering)
An aromatic vegetable material used for food seasoning.

SPICE

(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) A program widely used to simulate the performance of analog electronic systems and mixed mode analog and digital systems. SPICE solves sets of non-linear differential equations in the frequency domain, steady state and time domain and can simulate the behavior of transistor and gate designs. Developed at the University of California at Berkeley in the mid-1970s, there are enhanced versions of SPICE provided by several software companies. PSpice is a version for personal computers such as DOS, Windows and Mac.
References in periodicals archive ?
Raj is one of the industry's most preeminent authorities in the area of circuit simulation and he is the perfect choice to lead the outstanding team that we have assembled," said Dr.
As a result of this partnership, our mutual customers can efficiently debug and analyze the behavior of large circuits verified with leading-edge circuit simulation technology.
Xoomsys is developing a distributed processing solution that offers scalable performance for accurate circuit simulation using industry-standard simulators and inexpensive Linux computing clusters.
The integration of Nexxim into the Cadence Virtuoso(R) Analog Design Environment allows designers of complex DigitalRF CMOS ICs and GaAs/SiGe RFICs to gain access to Ansoft's new circuit simulation technology, without the costs and risks associated with changing design methodologies.
Nexxim bridges the gap between traditional analog SPICE simulation and RF circuit simulation by providing both frequency- and time-domain solutions from the same circuit (schematic and netlist) using the same device models.
Custom analog and high voltage devices, physical verification rule sets for Calibre DRC/LVS and for Calibre xRC parasitic layout extraction, as well as excellent characterized circuit simulation models enable rapid design starts of complex high performance mixed-signal ICs.
The core circuit simulation technology of Agilent's EEsof EDA Advanced Design System platform is frequency-domain harmonic balance.
Agilent ADS offers a complete set of system and circuit simulation technology and instrument links for RF and microwave design in a single, integrated flow.
In combination with the highly accurate circuit simulation models these tools enable high voltage chip designers to shorten their design time and increase their number of first time right designs.

Full browser ?