Cistercians


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Cistercians

(sĭstr`shənz), monks of a Roman Catholic religious order founded (1098) by St. Robert, abbot of Molesme, in Cîteaux [Cistercium], Côte-d'Or dept., France. They reacted against Cluniac departures from the Rule of St. Benedict. The particular stamp of the Cistercians stems from the abbacy (c.1109–1134) of St. Stephen HardingStephen Harding, Saint,
c.1060–1134, English monastic reformer. He entered the abbey at Sherborne in his youth; later (c.1077) he went to the Molesme abbey (near Châtillon-sur-Seine) in Burgundy. In 1098 he joined his abbot, St. Robert (d.
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. The black habit of the Benedictines was changed to unbleached white and the Cistercians became known as White Monks. St. Bernard of ClairvauxBernard of Clairvaux, Saint
, 1090?–1153, French churchman, mystic, Doctor of the Church. Born of noble family, in 1112 he entered the Cistercian abbey of Cîteaux, taking along 4 or 5 brothers and some 25 friends.
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 is often regarded as their "second founder." Through a return to strict asceticism and a life of poverty, the Cistercians sought to recover the ideals of the original Benedictines. They expanded greatly, especially during St. Bernard's lifetime, and at the close of the 12th cent. there were 530 Cistercian abbeys. The life and writings of St. Bernard were their guiding influence. They considered farming the chief occupation for monks and led Europe in the development of new agricultural techniques. (In England the Cistercians were important in English wool production.) The Cistercians were the first to make extensive use of lay brothers, conversi, who lived in the abbey under separate discipline and aided the monks in their farm system. In the 13th cent. relaxation of fervor diminished Cistercian importance, and by 1400 they had ceased to be prominent, their place being taken by the Dominican and Franciscan friars. Of later reform attempts, the most important was the movement begun at La Trappe, France (17th cent.); those accepting the greater austerities were known popularly as TrappistsTrappists,
popular name for an order of Roman Catholic monks, officially (since 1892) the Reformed Cistercians or Cistercians of the Stricter Observance. They perpetuate the reform begun at La Trappe, Orne dept., France, by Armand de Rancé (c.1660).
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, officially titled (after 1892) Cistercians of the Stricter Observance [Lat. abbr., O.C.S.D.], as distinct from Cistercians of the Common Observance [Lat. abbr., S.O. Cist.]. Today the difference is not great. The unit of Cistercian life is the abbey. Its members compose a permanent communal entity, with the abbeys joined in loose federation. Houses of Cistercian nuns (founded beginning in the 12th cent.) have rules and customs paralleling those of the monks; they lead contemplative lives in complete seclusion from the world. A 17th-century reform of Cistercian nuns produced the remarkable development of Port-RoyalPort-Royal
, former abbey of women, c.17 mi (27 km) W of Paris, founded in 1204. It was at first Benedictine, later Cistercian. In 1608 the abbess, Angélique Arnauld (see Arnauld, family), undertook a reform with the counsel of St. Francis de Sales.
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. Famous Cistercian abbeys include Cîteaux, Clairvaux, Fountains, Rievaulx, and Alcobaa.

Bibliography

See M. B. Pennington, ed., The Cistercian Spirit (1970); C. H. Lawrence, Medieval Monasticism (1984).

Cistercians

 

a Catholic monastic order founded in France by Benedictine monks in 1098. The first monastery of the order was at Cistercium (now Cîteaux), near Dijon.

The Cistercians became influential in the 12th century, when the order was reorganized by Bernard of Clairvaux; from this time, the Cistercians were also called the Bernardines. The rule of the order, prescribing physical labor and an ascetic way of life, was adopted in 1119. By the beginning of the 14th century, the Cistercians were one of the richest and most important orders in Catholic monasticism, numbering 700 monasteries and convents in France, Germany, and other European countries. The Cistercians were used by the papacy to spread Catholicism in Eastern Europe. In the 14th century, the order fell into decline. In the 17th century, it temporarily revived in the course of the struggle against Protestantism. At this time the Trappists, an order with an even stricter rule, were formed as an offshoot of the Cistercians. In the mid-1970’s, the Cistercians, including the Trappists, numbered about 6,000.

Cistercians

Roman Catholic monastic order observing strict asceticism, founded in 1098. [Christian Hist.: EB, II: 948]
References in periodicals archive ?
Tintern was the first Abbey to be built in Wales [in 1131] and only the second Cistercian house in Britain," he said.
For the abbot, who spent more than 20 years trying to obtain the stones of Santa Maria de Ovila for New Clairvaux, the chapter house represents a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to rescue a treasure of the Cistercian past, one he believes will demonstrate the transforming power of Cistercian spirituality and architecture.
In this important study Berman challenges the traditional understanding of the growth of the Cistercian order in 12th-century France, namely, that the monastery of Citeaux was founded in 1098 with Stephen Harding among its first members; in 1109 Harding became abbot; Bernard entered Citeaux with other members of his family in 1113, only to leave two years later to found a daughter house at Clairvaux; in 1119 Pope Callistus II confirmed the order's fundamental document, the Carta Caritatis; in 1132 Pope Innocent II granted the order a privilege exempting it from paying tithes on labor and livestock; in 1134 Stephen Harding died and the order made its first collection of statutes.
The Cistercian constitutions say, "It is the contemplative life itself that is their way of participating in the mission of Christ.
The all pervading and oft-repeated appeal to caritas is introduced in Chapter 3, "`A Garden Enclosed,' the Cultivation of the Soul," as a means of relating Cistercian economic activities to their religious ideals.
Perhaps the most remarkable twelfth-century inquiry into the theoretical foundations of plainchant is that undertaken under the auspices of the Cistercian order, indeed by command of the great Bernard of Clairvaux himself.
For four centuries this was the location of one of the great Cistercian abbeys of the Midlands.
The Cistercians also played a part in the preservation of the literary heritage of Wales, with the copying of manuscripts, and the patronage of the Welsh poets such as Dafydd ap Gwilym and Guto'r Glyn.
Internally, white-walled Cistercian austerity prevails, but is tempered by being brought into a dialogue with new materials such as concrete and dark, polished wood.
From necrological evidence, the author argues that, in an age when individualized commemorations were replacing earlier cumulative prayers for benefactors and friends both living and dead, "the cistercian ideology of simplicity and emphasis on the collective rather than on the individual" (205) allowed the monks of Rievaulx to lessen the burden of commemorative prayer by remembering deceased patrons and friends as a group, by minimizing confraternities, and by limiting (or perhaps not receiving) requests for burial.
Cistercians don't want to be distracted, because they are after a deeper place within.
The white monks in Wales not only tapped into the strong popular eremetical and heroic element in the traditions of north and west Wales, but were also cultured men who often traveled abroad, to the annual Cistercian gathering at Citeaux, and elsewhere in Europe even to pursue litigation in the Roman curia.