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Related to Citellus: souslik
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Spermophilus), susliks, a genus of rodents of the family Sciuridae. The body length is 20–40 cm, and the tail length is usually less than half the body length. The coloration ranges from sandy ocher to brownish gray. The upperparts frequently have dark ripples and barely distinct stripes or spots.

Susliks are found in the northern hemisphere at elevations to 3,500 m; they prefer open habitats in plains, tundras, or mountains. Of the approximately 20 species, ten occur in the USSR. The most common species are the spotted suslik (C. suslica), which is found in the steppes of the European USSR, C. fulvus, which occurs in the deserts of Kazakhstan and Middle Asia, and C. undulatus, which inhabits the plains, mountain steppes, and mountain meadows of Central Siberia and the Primor’e.

Susliks are active during the day. They hibernate during the winter and live mostly in colonies. When alarmed, susliks stand still and emit peculiar whistling sounds. Their diet consists of both the aboveground and underground parts of plants. The animals also store seeds. One litter, containing five to eight young, is born each year.

Many susliks are serious pests of grain crops; they also are the natural carriers of the causative agents of several diseases. Large species are hunted for their fur. Fossil remains are known from the Miocene.


Mlekopitaiushchie fauny SSSR, part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1963.
Zhizrí zhivotnykh, vol. 6. Moscow, 1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Why males incur a greater predation risk than females in juvenile European sousliks (Spermophilus citellus).
Annual cycle, population dynamics and adaptive behavior of Citellus tridecemlineatus.
Differential development patterns and their adaptive value in various species of the genus Citellus. Growth 30:137-142.
Breeding habits and early life of the thirteen-striped ground squirrel, Citellus tridecemlineatus (Mitchill).
2011: Morning release into artificial burrows with retention caps facilitates success of European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) translocations.--European Journal of Wildlife Research 57: 1101-1105.
1998: Endoscopic observations on tunnel blocking behaviour in the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus).--Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 6 3: 377-380.
2008: Daily activity pattern in free-living European ground squirrels Spermophilus citellus (Mammalia: Rodentia) from Northwestern Bulgaria.--Acta Zoologica Bulgarica Suppl.
1998: Parameters of mating effort and success in male European ground squirrel, Spermophilus citellus.--Ethology 104: 298-313.
1978: Citellus citellus (Linnaeus, 1766) Der oder das Europaische Ziesel.--In: Niethammer, J.
Annual cycle, population dynamics and adaptive behaviour of Citellus tridecemlineatus.
The Franklin's ground squirrel, Citellus franklinii (Sabine), and its relationship to nesting ducks.
Other grazers include cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus nutalii), mice (Microtus sp.), chipmunks (Eutamias sp.), and ground squirrels (Citellus sp.) (Driscoll, 1964; pers.