NDM-1 was reported from different hospitals in the UK in Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii
, Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli.4,5 It was initially discovered in 2008 in a Swedish patient of Indian origin, but now has claimed its presence globally including India and Pakistan.5,6 United Kingdom, Canada, France, China, Japan, Oman, Iraq, Bangladesh and United States are one of the few other countries from where bla NDM-1 has been reported.
It is also approved to treat adult patients with cIAI caused by susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms such as Bacteroides caccae, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides stercoris, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Citrobacter freundii
, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Klebsiella aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Parabacteroides distasonis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Furthermore, it has been shown that Aeromonas hydrophila and Citrobacter freundii
, were the cause of fish injuries and mortality of naturally infected silver catfish, and Raoultella ornithinolytica was the cause of human intoxication by histamine due to the consumption of contaminated fish (KANKI et al., 2002; BANDEIRA JUNIOR et al., 2017).
Almost all these correspond to gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Salmonella enterica, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii
, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia odorifera, and the non-fermentative gramnegative bacillus Xanthomonas malthopilia.
On September 17, 2018, the Texas Department of State Health Services received notification of Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii
bloodstream infections in three patients who had received injections or infusions of non-FDA--approved umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell products processed by Genetech, Inc., and distributed by Liveyon, LLC, for other than hematopoietic or immunologic reconstitution at an outpatient clinic on September 12.
faecalis and its associated organisms among males & females Isolates Total isolates = 74 Males Females Total Enterococcus faecalis 40 12 52 Acinetobacter baumanni 6 2 8 Staphylococcus aureus 4 0 4 Citrobacter freundii
complex 2 0 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae 2 0 2 Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 0 2 Enterobacter aerogenes 0 2 2 Escherichia coli 2 0 2 Table 3.
torpicalis."In addition to strains of Candidia, this synergistic probiotic formula demonstrated antagonistic actiivty to multiple pathogens affecting the ololaryngeal area including, Escherichia coli M-17, Enterobacter cloacea, Citrobacter freundii
, Escherichia coli k12, Klebsiella pneumoniae K-1, Proteus vulgaris 72, Salmonella equiabortus 202, Salmonella typhimurium 11, Serratia marcescens 10, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 103, Psudomonas alcaligenes CCM2655, Micrococcus puogenes, Staphylococcus aureus 209P, and Staphylococcus epidermidis.
was the least common isolates belonging to the enterobacteriaceae family which is similar to the study by Uday Kelkar et al (2004)  Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species and Enterococcus species were organisms isolated in decreasing order.
Other GNB such as Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii
, Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and unidentified GNB revealed the highest resistance rates for cephalosporins (80% to 95%) and ciprofloxacin (72.2%).
A strain belonging to Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes (now newly named as Klebsiella aerogeties) or Citrobacter freundii
group will virtually always present full resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefoxitin due to low level of chromosomal AmpC enzyme expression.