Citrullus


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Related to Citrullus: Citrullus vulgaris

Citrullus

 

a genus of annual and perennial plants of the Cucurbitaceae (Gourd) family. The root is strongly branched and goes down to depths of 1 m and more. The stalk grows along the ground and has long-petioled, pinnatisect leaves; there are also varieties with undivided leaves. The flowers can be dioecious and hermaphroditic, monoecious and dioecious, solitary, or more rarely in clusters. The fruit—the pepo—is round, oval, flattened, or cylindrical in shape. The coloring of the rind varies from white to dark green, with patterns in the form of nets, stripes, and spots. The pulp is pink, red, crimson, and more rarely, white or yellow. Three species are known: the colocynth (C. colocynthis), which grows wild in the deserts of Africa, Iran, Middle Asia, Afghanistan, and Australia, and the cultivated species—the watermelon (C. vulgaris) and the citron melon (C. colocynthoides). The ci-trullus is a heat-loving crop and needs less fertile soil than other melon crops.

The Citrullus originated in South Africa. Its cultivation is widespread in the USA, Japan, China, India, and the countries of southeastern Europe. In the USSR it is grown in the Lower Volga region, the Northern Caucasus, the southern Ukraine, Moldavia, Transcaucasia, Kazakhstan, the republics of Middle Asia, the Central Chernozem Zone, and certain other regions. The fruits of the watermelon weigh between 0.6 and 16 kg and contain vitamins, up to 11 percent sugar, and other substances. They are eaten fresh, pickled (the small varieties), used for cooking honey (nedrak), making candied fruit, and so on. The seeds contain a valuable, tasty oil. The fruits of the citron melon weigh between 10 and 15 kg, contain 2–3 percent sugar, and are eaten by all animal species fresh and in silage form. Average yields are 150–200 quintals per hectare for watermelons and 250–300 for citron melons. Common fast-maturing varieties of watermelon (65–75 days) in the USSR include Stoks 647–649, Pobeditel’ 395, and Liubimets Khutora Piatigorska. Medium- and late-maturing varieties (85–140 days) are the Melitopol’ 142 and 143, the Bykovskii 22, and others. Citron melon varieties include the Diskhim and Brodskii 37–42.

A field to be planted with Citrullus is plowed 25–27 cm deep in the fall; in the early spring it is harrowed and planted twice. During the fall plowing, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied and in the spring during cultivation, nitrogen or organic (humus or rotted manure). Seeds (2–4 kg per hectare) are planted 6–8 cm deep. Under arid conditions, the citron and long-vined varieties of the watermelon should be planted in areas of 4–6 sq m per plant and short-vined varieties, in areas of 3–4 sq m per plant. On more fertile and moister soils, less area is required. Plantings are thinned, the soil is loosened, and the vines are powdered. Irrigation is used primarily in Astrakhan Oblast and the republics of Middle Asia—from nine to 12 waterings figured for 400–500 cu m per hectare. In more northerly regions, the fast-maturing Citrullus varieties can be raised by the hotbed method.

V. F. BELIK

References in periodicals archive ?
Sources of whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) resistance in Citrullus for the improvement of cultivated watermelon.
Short- and long-term effects of various Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Citrullus colocynthis (melon) is creeping annual, belonging to the gourd family Ucurbtaceae (Sampson and Corner, 1980).
The Citrullus colocynthis extract was obtained by drying the plant part, then finely powered and extracted with boiling in methanol.
The present study was carried out to develop an efficient protocol for callus induction, total cucurbitacins and cucurbitacin-E accumulation under the effect of different growth regulators and explant types of Citrullus colocynthis (Handel).
Citrullus colocynthis Schrad is a traditionally acclaimed hair tonic in Indian system of medicine.
The big GMO seed companies are putting onto the world agricultural market fruits such as Cucumis melo, Citrus limonum, Citrullus vulgaris, Solanum lycopersicum, Vitis vinifera, without seeds to inflict deliberate damage on the ecosystem.
droserifolia 2 Zilla spinosa 3 Citrullus colocynthis 4 Fagonia cretica 5 Zizphus spina- christi 6 Aerva javanica 7 Bassia eriophora 8 Cornulaca monacantha 9 Haloxylon salicornicum 10 Salsola imbricata 11 Acacia ehrenbergiana 12 Acacia gerrardii 13 Acacia tortolis 14 Logonychium farctum 15 Alhagi mannifera 16 Alhagi maurorum 17 Rhynchosia minima 18 Crotalaria aculeate 19 Tephrosia uniflora 20 Rhazia stricta 21 Calotropis procera 22 Hyoscymus muticus 23 Lycium barbarum 24 Convolvulus lanatus 25 Heliotropium bacciferum 26 Heliotropium digynum 27 Heliotropium europium 28 Echinops husoni 29 Phaeopappus scoparius 30 Rhanterium epapposum 31 Panicum Monocots turgidum 32 Pennisetum divisum 33 Cyperus conglomeratus No.
The order Violales contains many economically important plants [Begonia, Carica papaya, Citrullus, Cucumis, Cucurbita, Lagenaria, Luffa, Passiflora, and Tamarix] , it also includes the genus Viola (Cronquist, 1981).
Anti-inflammatory activities of cucurbitacin E isolated from Citrullus lanatus var, citroides: Role of reactive nitrogen species and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition.