He then referred to the City Beautiful Movement
, which, in the 19th century, initiated urban planning and more breathing spaces, and how it dignified surrounding buildings.
It is a vision that unabashedly draws on the City Beautiful movement
of the late 19th and early 20th century--at the center of which was McKim--and would thus be a kind of fulfillment of Penn Station's original promise.
He describes its opening in conjunction with the national City Beautiful movement
, the role of founder Adolph Zang, the park's rides, its financial and structural difficulties, how Benjamin Krasner bought it in 1935, remodeling efforts, the takeover by Rhoda Krasner, the Lakeside Speedway, and other aspects.
River, was originally built in 1932 during the City Beautiful movement
, an era in which grand civic projects were commissioned across America.
In many places, hybrids emerged, building on both garden city ideas and related traditions such as Utopian settlements, industrial villages and the City Beautiful movement
Likewise, the city's first attempts at urban planning, inspired by the American City Beautiful movement
of the 1890s, combined a modern concern for efficiency with a Beaux-Arts style.
Extraterritorial projects such as the New Deal, CIAM (Congres Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne), and the City Beautiful movement
shape this expression of democracy, justice, modernity, and Cuban identity in Havana.
It is easy to pooh-pooh the City Beautiful movement
, for example, because some of its most ambitious plans came to naught.
Recalling the City Beautiful movement
that flourished in the 1890s, Reilly argues we need a new movement--the City Sustainable--for communities that are green, smart and fair.
He also highlights those who are little known beyond professional circles, such as Charles Mulford Robinson, who promoted the City Beautiful movement
at the turn of the 20th century, and Robinson's English counterpart, Raymond Unwin.
He built some of the first skyscrapers in the world, directed the construction of the 1893 World's Columbia Exposition that helped inspire the City Beautiful Movement
and created urban plans for Washington DC, Cleveland, Chicago, San Francisco and Manila all before the profession of comprehensive urban planning existed.
This plan, New York's most dramatic and successful example of the so-called City Beautiful movement
of the early 20th century, was conceived as a ravishing classical vision.