Ciudad Rodrigo (thyo͞othäth` rôthrē`gō), town (1990 pop. 15,985), Salamanca prov., central Spain, in Castile and León, on the Agueda River near the Portuguese border. It is a trade and tourism center for a cattle-raising area. Originally a Roman settlement, the town was abandoned and reestablished in the 12th cent. as a fortress. It has preserved its medieval flavor and has been declared a historic monument.