civil society

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civil society

(as used by HEGEL and MARX) market and economic relations (in contrast with the activity of the STATE); a realm intermediate between the family and the state. More generally, the realm of wider social relations and public participation, as against the narrower operations of the state or of the economy.

The earliest usages of the term in political and social philosophy were to contrast both ‘civil society’ and ‘civil government’ with ‘natural society’ or the ‘state of nature’. In the Scottish Enlightenment, Adam FERGUSON used the term in contrasting Western CIVILIZATION, and its associated forms of government and politics, with non-Western forms of society and their more ‘despotic forms of government (see also ORIENTAL DESPOTISM). The economic and political freedoms associated with civil society are regarded by Marxists as sometimes apparent rather than real (e.g. protecting the interests of private property and capital and enshrining significant freedoms, but instilling selfish individualism and masking underlying economic exploitation, ALIENATION, the loss of earlier community, etc). However, within Marxism, as well as in sociology generally the historical significance of the differentiation of civil society from ‘nature’, the family, and the 'S tate’ is acknowledged on all sides. Distinctions in any of the above senses between civil society and the state operate, even if, as emphasized by GRAMSCI, the state plays a role in the establishment of civil society, and the establishment of civil society also plays a part in protecting or in changing particular state forms (compare PUBLIC SPHERE). See also CIVIL RIGHTS, PUBLIC SPHERE.

References in periodicals archive ?
Civil institutions may open branches in the emirate upon a written approval from the authority.
He added that al-Jubouri will meet then US President Barack Obama to discuss the latest developments, needs and necessary support to help Iraq to fight Daash as well as to help them overcome the negative effects of Daash on the displaced people and the destruction of homes and government and civil institutions.
He extended congratulations to BCCI Board Chairman and members on the occasion, stressing that the chamber is one of the most glorious civil institutions at the GCC level.
In Turkey, civil institutions and activists also organized on the same day similar massive protests in support of the Aqsa Mosque in the cities of Usak and Antalya.
Al-Haj Adam that the recent referendum does not mean anything for Sudan, and that Sudan and South Sudan have reached an agreement to establish civil institutions and police to contribute to the stability of the people and offer services to them and to achieve peace and coexistence in the region.
Syria seeks social, civil peace for all citizens in the country and supports initiatives of the social civil institutions as well," the Minister said during a meeting with Chairman and members of al-Waf for Syria Initiative Body.
He added that community policing had succeeded in forging a partnership with individuals and civil institutions while completing four years of service.
In a statement to SUNA, Pack stressed the need for the return of the civil action institutions to carry out their duties in order to fill the administrative vacuum that happened due to the full withdrawal of the military elements whether from the Sudanese or South Sudan elements, requesting the Presidency of Republic to accelerate establishment of principles and sound foundations for the work of civil institutions besides identification and appointment of those who carry out the mission onto the ground in the area representing the Sudanese party, warning of the danger of neglecting the issue and its reflection on the general life in the area particularly that Abyei has its special circumstances and situations that require urgent handling and concern to the extent required.
Representatives from civil institutions, political parties, provincial council, ulemas and the public during a gathering three days ago in Neili, the provincial capital, vowed to stage protests, if the government did not remove corrupted officials from the province, said Danish.
Meanwhile, on the issue of former rebel fighters, Jalil said " we strove to accommodate many of the rebels in the military and security institutions and in civil institutions, in order to collect weapons from the street.
The course was attended by thirty senior specialist doctors from across the country including armed forces and civil institutions.
He explained that there are more than 10,000 civil institutions in the Gulf, with other charitable and civilian institutions of great significance.