Cladonia


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Cladonia

 

a genus of lichens with a binary thallus. The prothallus is horizontal and grows in the form of nodules or scales, which sometimes later atrophy; the secondary thallus, which grows out of the prothallus, is vertical, and consists of subulate, hornlike, cup-shaped, or bushy formations called podetia. The apothecia, found at the tips of the branches or on the apexes of the podetia, are rounded or hemispheric and red, brown, or, more rarely, yellow in color. There are about 300 species of Cladonia, growing in forests (chiefly pine), tundras, and swamps. In the North several species of Cladonia are used as forage for reindeer. Some species contain usnic acid and have medicinal value. In the USSR there are about 100 species.

References in periodicals archive ?
Additions to the knowledge of the genus Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in the alpine belt of the Pyrenees in Andorra.
Cladonia digitata (L.) Hoffm.--3: tocon de pino (930035, 930037); -2: tocon de Abies alba, terricola (930145, 930171);--1: tocon de Pinus uncinata (930121, 930129).
Platismatia glauca and Cladonia convoluta were collected respectively in Limousin (near Meymac) and in Quercy (near Cressensac), France.
Cladonia carneola (Fr.) Fr.--9: EA, ES & RA (MACB 102189, 102191), Mm.
I would particularly like to thank Professor Ana Rosa Burgaz Moreno, Department of Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution (Botany Unit) at the Complutense University in Madrid, Spain, which I met during XV OPTIMA Meeting in June, 2016 in Montpellier and who was able to authenticate the identification of Cladonia humilis (with fumarprotocetraric and bourgeanic acids) and C ramulosa and also to Dr.
In fact, many Cladonia lichens reproduce from small pieces that are broken off by deer or other animal traffic and roll to a new location where they establish a new colony.
The remainder of the species either reproduce through the dispersal of asexual non-lichenized propagules (Dktyocatenulata alba), or were treated as polymorphic because they are members of the genus Cladonia that produce abundant lichenized propagules together with pyenidia and apothecia on the same thallus.
The in vivo antidiabetic studies of three lichen extracts, namely, Cladonia humilis [43], Parmotremagrayana [44] and P.