This gave the crust the unique mixture of ice, clathrate hydrates
It covers topics like the properties of ideal and real gases and dry and wet gases; the properties of black oils, including definitions, reservoir fluid studies and their application, field data, and correlations; and clathrate hydrates
Koh, Clathrate Hydrates
of Natural Gases, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2008.
In other words, clathrate hydrates
are clathrate compounds in which the host molecule is water and the guest molecule is typically a gas or liquid.
Among the topics are pressure-driven liquid-liquid transformations and corresponding bizarre viscosity behavior, the water proton environment as a possible new water anomaly at the atomic scale, water and biological macromolecules, water-like thermodynamics and dynamic anomalies and the evidence for polymorphism in computer simulations of liquid silica, and a statistical mechanical approach to the thermodynamic stability of clathrate hydrates
form when water molecules crystallize into a cage-like structure that can contain one or more molecules of natural gas or other hydrocarbons.
A second model postulates that Jupiter formed near its current orbit and was bombarded with icy planetesimals rich in ice-like solid materials known as clathrate hydrates
, which are common in the outer solar system.
primarily occur in one of three crystalline structures (termed sI, sII and sH), although a number of more exotic configurations are known.
The 89th edition continues the format of the past, with new tables added for atomic radii, composition and properties of common oils and fats, global warming potential of greenhouse gases, weather-related scales, energy content of fuels, properties of gas clathrate hydrates
, melting curve of mercury, enthalpy of hydration of gases, and electrical resistivity of graphite materials.
Sloan, Clathrate Hydrates
of Natural Gases, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1998.
(or gas hydrates) are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside 'cages' of hydrogen bonded water molecules.
Sloan and Koh, both affiliated with the Colorado School of Mines, describe all major aspects of natural gas clathrate hydrates
in this book/CD-ROM package for engineers and researchers.