The Spectroscopic analysis in Type I inclusions confirms the presence of vapor C[O.sub.2] and probably of N2, which was responsible for the gas hydrates (clathrates
) formation in the cooling routines (Fig 8A).
Because water is also observed in this region, perhaps the material making up the bladed terrain is a methane clathrate
. A clathrate
is a structure in which a primary molecular species (say water, or H2O) forms a crystalline 'cage' to contain a guest molecule (methane or CH4, for example.).
As Arctic seas, lakes, and tundra continue to warm, and more and more permafrost melts, scientists are not certain precisely how quickly methane and carbon dioxide from permafrost and clathrates
will reach dangerous levels.
This could occur if methane is produced faster than it is converted into clathrates
. A second possibility is that methane clathrates
from the ocean are dragged along into the erupting plumes and release their methane as they rise, like bubbles forming in a popped bottle of champagne.
To examine the composition of gas in the clathrate
phase of the samples, synthesized hydrates were decomposed under the temperature of 278 K and pressure of 0.1 MPa.
MacDonald, "Role of methane clathrates
in past and future climates," Climatic Change, vol.
The consequent heating of the Arctic environment may release methane from undersea clathrates
and increase the already significant release from permafrost.
If large amounts of methane are also released from clathrates
on the ocean floor, catastrophe is likely.
Topics include bulk nanocomposites of thermoelectric materials, thermoelectric inverse clathrates
, polymer thermoelectric materials, heat dissipaters, and medical applications.
Since TBA forms clathrates
in bulk water at X[x.sub.TBA] = 0.05 (Iwasaki and Fujiyama, 1977, 1979), the referred maximum was formerly ascribed to the presence of these structures at the interface.
for viable gas storage media, clathrates
may offer an
the methane clathrates
or methane hydrates on the ocean floor.