Chrysippus, the third head of the Stoa, disagreed on a number of points with Cleanthes
, the second head.
would have the Sun to be the commandcentre of the world, because it is the greatest of the heavenly bodies, and contributes most to the administration of the whole by making the day and the year and the other seasons.
Stoics could have found Paul's representation of God acceptable, if we compare Cleanthes
' Hymn to Zeus.
Meijer, Stoic Theology: Proofs for the Existence of the Cosmic God and of the Traditional Gods, Including a Commentary on Cleanthes
' Hymn on Zeus (Delft: Eburon, 2007), appendix I; Matthew E.
Logos et Scala naturae dans le stoicisme de Zenon et Cleanthe
. Elenchos, 2, pp.
The Stoics used the term Logos to refer to "the universal reason at work in the world, as well as the rational order that bound the cosmos together," and Cleanthes
' hymn to Zeus uses the term, even telling of the Logos being rejected by humans.
The other major work presented here is Marullus's Hymns to Nature, which belongs to a genre of theogonic poetry that begins with Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns and extends through Cleanthes
, Callimachus, and Proclus.
non expressisset, si tantummodo audisset: vitae eius interfuit, secreta perspexit, obervavit ilium, an ex formula sua viveret.
For example, Stobaeus advertises an argument from Cleanthes
as 'about the city's being excellent where in fact Cleanthes
argues that the city is 'urbane' (2.7.11i = SVF 3.328).
The Greek invocation of God as Father tends to be impersonal, insofar as it is cosmological rather than moral, with the exception of certain prayers and hymns of the Stoics (e.g., Cleanthes
Philo argues against Cleanthes
' employment of the notion that everything has a cause in his argument for the existence of God.