Clearchus


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Clearchus

(klēär`kəs), d. 401 B.C., Spartan officer, celebrated as the leader of the Ten Thousand. Sent in 410 to govern Byzantium, he made himself unpopular by his harsh discipline, and Alcibiades took the city in 408 B.C. Clearchus later returned and made himself virtual ruler, thereby incurring the anger of the Spartans, who forced him to leave (403). He sought refuge with Cyrus the Younger of Persia, who used him to recruit and later command the Greek mercenary force in support of Cyrus' claim to the throne. At CunaxaCunaxa
, ancient town of Babylonia, near the Euphrates River, NE of Ctesiphon. It was the scene of a battle (401 B.C.) between Cyrus the Younger and Artaxerxes II, described by Xenophon in the Anabasis.
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, Clearchus fought boldly, but Cyrus' forces were defeated. After the battle he led the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) in retreat, but was lured into a conference by TissaphernesTissaphernes
, d. 395 B.C., Persian satrap of coastal Asia Minor (c.413–395 B.C.). He was encouraged by Alcibiades (412) to intervene in the Peloponnesian War in support of Sparta.
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 and treacherously murdered. The story of the retreat was made famous by XenophonXenophon
, c.430 B.C.–c.355 B.C., Greek historian, b. Athens. He was one of the well-to-do young disciples of Socrates before leaving Athens to join the Greek force (the Ten Thousand) that was in the service of Cyrus the Younger of Persia.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Although a general, Clearchus represents a temptation that faces all great minds, and that is to become an ideologue.
The assassination of Clearchus takes place in 353/352 BCE.
On the most general level, just as the Greek mercenaries in Xenophon's account are mustered through the machinations of Cyrus and Clearchus in Asia Minor with no clear sense of their ultimate destination--Babylon, where the king is--Callirhoe is brought to Ionia, unaware that she too will eventually face the king in Babylon.
Thomas Braun ("Dangerous Liaisons") gives a nice portrait of both the Spartan mercenary warlord Clearchus and the Persian Prince Cyrus.
In describing the superior leadership of Clearchus, Xenophon noted.
The geographical going-up of Cyrus and his army of Persians and Greek mercenaries turned out to be a moral, political, and psychological going-down: Cyrus was killed at the battle of Cunaxa in 401; the Persians in his force abandoned the Greeks and went over to Artaxarxes; and the five main Greek commanders (including Clearchus, Proxenus, and Meno), together with twenty other officers, were murdered shortly thereafter through the treachery of the Persian commander Tissaphernes.
The first two lines were long known from various citations, notably in Athenaeus, whose sources included the fourth-century authors Heraclides of Pontus and Aristotle's pupil Clearchus of Soli.
1-2 (Eusebius quotes Hecataeus of Abdera, Clearchus, and Choerilus of Samos, respectively, all of which he actually draws from Josephus, (Contra Apionem, which is directly quoted at IX.
The philosopher Clearchus is probably Clearchos of Soli, one of the followers of Aristotle around 320 B.
English poet whose Thealma and Clearchus was published posthumously in 1683 by Izaak Walton.
when, according to Clearchus, a disciple of Aristotle, as quoted by Josephus in his essay Against Apion (1.
17) One may also compare what Clearchus is reported to have replied to Cyrus just before the battle: [Greek Words Omitted] ('Clearchus.