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The production of small closed flowers that are self-pollinating and contain numerous seeds.



the self-pollination and self-fertilization of plants with usually small, plain, closed (cleistogamous) blossoms.

Cleistogamous flowers have little pollen. The pollen either falls onto the stigma in the closed blossom or, more rarely, germinates in the anthers, pierces their walls, and grows into the pistil. Cleistogamy is observed in plants of various families, including Arachis, many violets, impatiens, chickweed, toadflax, wood sorrel, and barley. Under favorable conditions cross-pollination is also sometimes observed in typically cleistogamous plants (for example, in some violets).

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Urticaceae) not previously recognized as containing cleistogamy (Darwin,
that cleistogamy was most often reported within the Poaceae (n=326
noted that cleistogamy was most common in the Fabaceae, Acanthaceae, and
Within genera, cleistogamy was most commonly reported
most cases, the type of cleistogamy reported was dimorphic (536 of 693
The widespread distribution of cleistogamy within angiosperms
times that cleistogamy has evolved as well as the theory and potential
to estimate the number of times cleistogamy has evolved within the
Cleistogamy was widespread across monocot and dicot families,
These values are most likely underestimates because cleistogamy may
example, complete cleistogamy has evolved three separate times within
chasmogamous, with dimorphic cleistogamy subsequently evolving in situ.