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The production of small closed flowers that are self-pollinating and contain numerous seeds.



the self-pollination and self-fertilization of plants with usually small, plain, closed (cleistogamous) blossoms.

Cleistogamous flowers have little pollen. The pollen either falls onto the stigma in the closed blossom or, more rarely, germinates in the anthers, pierces their walls, and grows into the pistil. Cleistogamy is observed in plants of various families, including Arachis, many violets, impatiens, chickweed, toadflax, wood sorrel, and barley. Under favorable conditions cross-pollination is also sometimes observed in typically cleistogamous plants (for example, in some violets).

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In addition to the possible reduction in additive genetic variance on the hillside, differential levels of cleistogamy between sites may have an additional effect on phenotypic evolution.
Plant density, cleistogamy and self-fertilization in natural populations of Lithospermum caroliniense.
the literature, the extent of cleistogamy within angiosperms is still
clarify the different types of cleistogamy that exist, (2) quantify how
often cleistogamy occurs within angiosperm genera and species, (3)
estimate the number of times that cleistogamy has evolved within
Cleistogamy is a sexual breeding system in which the necessity of
Hence, cleistogamy differs from asexual systems such as apomixis, in which double fertilization is not required
documented cleistogamy in four genera of Malpighiaceae in 1908.
The subject of apomixis and cleistogamy has recently experienced a
In species producing hermaphroditic flowers, the evolution of autogamous selfing is facilitated by the presence of anthers and stigma within the same flower, and highly efficient selfing mechanisms like cleistogamy may evolve.
Evolution of reproductive characteristics in Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae): the significance of cleistogamy and chasmogamy.