Clement XI


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Clement XI,

1649–1721, pope (1700–1721), an Italian (b. Urbino) named Giovanni Francesco Albani; successor of Innocent XII. He was known in his youth for his prodigious learning and brilliance. He became cardinal in 1690. As pope he was involved in the struggle between France and Austria over the throne of Spain; he recognized Philip VPhilip V,
1683–1746, king of Spain (1700–1746), first Bourbon on the Spanish throne. A grandson of Louis XIV of France, he was titular duke of Anjou before Charles II of Spain designated him as his successor.
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 but later was forced into recognizing Charles of Hapsburg, the other claimant. The chief spiritual concern of his pontificate was that of Jansenism (see under Jansen, CornelisJansen, Cornelis
, 1585–1638, Dutch Roman Catholic theologian. He studied at the Univ. of Louvain and became imbued with the idea of reforming Christian life along the lines of a return to St. Augustine.
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). The brief Vineam Domini (1705) condemned the Jansenist ideas on papal infallibility, and in 1713 he issued the bull Unigenitus, which condemned certain other Jansenist propositions. He was succeeded by Innocent XIII.
References in periodicals archive ?
El cardenal Francesco Acquaviva dAragona (1716-1725), en <<Roma moderna e contemporanea>>, XV (2007) 293-325; Renata Ago <<Innocenzo XII>>, y Stefano ANDRETTA, <<Clemente XI>> Enciclopedia dei Papi, III, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Roma, 2000, 394-403 y 405-420 (este ultimo contrapunto a Lucien CEYSSENS, Lauteur de la Coitstitution, le Pape Clement XI (1649-1721), <<Bulletin de l'Institut historique belge de Rome>>, 53-54 [1983-1984] 253-304); John STOYE, MarsigWs Europe.
The election in 1700 of the young, energetic, intellectual, cultured, and, above all, devout Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Albani, as Clement XI, was bound to have significant repercussions on the life of Rome, the Papacy, and the Church.
A victim of the ambition of the secular princes, Catholic and Protestant, Pope Clement XI has gone down in history as an unmitigated political failure.
A product of the Collegio Romano, a protege of Cardinal Carlo Barberini, and a seasoned administrator, but also a modest reformer with an aversion to nepotism, Clement XI appreciated the public benefits that would accrue from a resolute employment of art in the service of God and His Church.
Pope Clement XI placed it in the Roman calendar in 1716.
In 1716, Pope Clement XI signed the Act of Incoronation and the image was crowned on September 8, 1717 in the presence of about 200,000 faithful.
Although Alexander VII had explicitly approved of these new missionary methods in 1656, a later pope, Clement XI, revoked that approval in 1704 and forbade the use of Chinese rites -- a decision that proved disastrous for the church's future missionary outreach to China.
In 1704, however, Pope Clement XI sided with the Jesuits' critics and ordered the so-called "Chinese rites" suppressed.
Clement XI (1700-1721): He had been ordained a priest only a few weeks before being elected pope.
In 1704, Clement XI decided against Ricci's ideas -- and his biretta.