Cleveland


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Cleveland

, former county, England
Cleveland, former county, NE England, created under the Local Government Act of 1972 (effective 1974). It was composed of the county boroughs of Hartlepool and Teesside and parts of the former counties of Durham and Yorkshire (North Riding). In 1997, Cleveland was dissolved and the unitary authorities of Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland, and Stockton-on-Tees were created.

Cleveland

, cities, United States

Cleveland. 1 City (2020 pop. 372,674), seat of Cuyahoga co., NE Ohio, on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River; laid out (1796) by Moses Cleaveland, chartered as a city 1836. Ohio's second largest city and the center of the state's largest metropolitan area, it is an ore port and a Great Lakes shipping point. In spite of a dramatic decline in manufacturing, Cleveland remains to some extent dependent on heavy industry, including steel milling and the manufacture of engines, guided missiles, and space vehicles. There are numerous research firms; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a large center here, and the headquarters of the lighting division and the Lighting and Electrical Institute of the General Electric Company is in nearby Nela Park. Cleveland also houses some of the nation's largest law firms. The biomedical industry is the fastest growing segment of Cleveland's economy, in large part because of the presence of the Cleveland Clinic, a world-famous research and treatment facility and the city's largest employer.

Cleveland is the seat of Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland State Univ., John Carroll Univ., Notre Dame College, the Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Music, and several other colleges and seminaries. Visitors are drawn to the Mall (civic center); the Terminal Tower and Public Square; the Rock-and-Roll Hall of Fame; the Western Reserve Historical Society Museum; the museum of natural history, with a planetarium; Wade Park, with the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Fine Arts Garden; Rockefeller Park, enclosing the Shakespeare and Cultural Gardens; Severance Hall, where concerts of the internationally famous Cleveland Orchestra are performed; the Cleveland zoo; and an aquarium. The city also has a notable public library. The Cleveland Plain Dealer is a nationally known newspaper. In Lake View Cemetery are the graves of James A. Garfield, Mark Hanna (who made his fortune in Cleveland), John Hay, and John D. Rockefeller.

Cleveland grew rapidly after the opening of the first section of the Ohio and Erie Canal in 1827 and the arrival of the railroad in 1851. With its factories it attracted large numbers of 19th-century immigrants, including Irish, Germans, Italians, Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, and many others. Its location midway between the coal and oil fields of Pennsylvania and (via the Great Lakes) the Minnesota iron mines spurred industrialization; it was here that John D. Rockefeller began his oil dynasty. Cleveland's African-American community was formed largely by migration from the South after World War I.

The city was plagued during the 1960s by racial disorders, especially in the Hough and Glenville sections. In 1967, Cleveland became the first major U.S. city to elect a black mayor, Carl B. Stokes. As industry rapidly declined from the 1960s, the city went through a period of Rust Belt decay; numerous factories shut down and people and businesses moved to the suburbs. Cleveland's population has declined from its highest point in 1950 (914,808) to 2020 (372, 674), or 59.3%. In 1979, the city declared bankruptcy after defaulting on $15.5 million in municipal loans. In the 1980s, however, Cleveland attracted investment downtown and revitalized some sections, and the 1990s saw the opening of Jacobs Field (for baseball's Indians), Gund Arena (for basketball's Cavaliers), Browns Stadium (for football's Browns), the Great Lakes Science Center, and the Rock-and-Roll Hall of Fame as well as the restoration of three historic downtown shopping arcades. However, its poverty rate (30.8%, 2020) is the highest of any major U.S. city.

Bibliography

See E. J. Benton, Cultural Story of an American City: Cleveland (3 vol., 1943–46); G. E. Condon, Yesterday's Cleveland (1976); F. Thompson, The Workers Who Built Cleveland (1987).

2 City (2020 pop. 47,356), seat of Bradley co., SE Tenn.; inc. 1838. Agriculture (fruits, vegetables, wheat) is the economic mainstay, but a variety of products, including furniture, chemicals, and textiles, are manufactured. Lee College is there. Cleveland is headquarters of the Cherokee National Forest.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cleveland

 

a city in the northeastern USA, in the state of Ohio; a port on the southern shore of Lake Erie where the Cuyahoga River empties into it. Population, 751,000 (1970); 2.1 million including the suburbs. It is one of the most important industrial, financial, and cultural centers of the USA.

Cleveland was founded in 1796. It grew in the 19th century as shipping developed on the Great Lakes and on the Erie-Ontario Canal, which began at Cleveland. Subsequently the advantageous position of the city along the route from the iron deposits of Lake Superior to the Pittsburgh coal-metallurgical region contributed to its transformation into a major center of metallurgy and later of machine building. In 1969, 870,000 of the region’s inhabitants were in the work force, including 34 percent in manufacturing, 35 percent in trade and services, 6 percent in transport and the municipal economy, 5 percent in finance, and 12 percent in the civil service.

Cleveland is one of the most important ports of the Great Lakes system; its turnover of goods was 20 million tons in 1969, with incoming freight (iron ore, limestone, and so on) being almost 40 times greater than outgoing cargo. Through the city pass important railroad and highway arteries connecting the northeastern seaboard with Detroit and Chicago. The city has an airport.

Of the 315,000 employed in industry, nearly three-fourths are in heavy industry. The leading sectors are ferrous metallurgy, metalworking, machine building of various varieties (machine tools, automobile parts, electrical and electronic products, construction and port equipment, and lake vessels and barges), the chemical industry, and the production of pharmaceuticals. Also important are the printing, garment, and meat industries. Oil is refined there. The city has a university.

Cleveland is an important center of the American workers’ movement.

V. M. GOKHMAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cleveland

1
Stephen Grover. 1837--1908, US Democratic politician; the 22nd and 24th president of the US (1885--89; 1893--97)

Cleveland

2
1. a former county of NE England formed in 1974 from parts of E Durham and N Yorkshire; replaced in 1996 by the unitary authorities of Hartlepool (Durham), Stockton-on-Tees (Durham), Middlesbrough (North Yorkshire) and Redcar and Cleveland (North Yorkshire)
2. a port in NE Ohio, on Lake Erie: major heavy industries. Pop.: 461 324 (2003 est.)
3. a hilly region of NE England, extending from the Cleveland Hills to the River Tees
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Left to Right: Sheila Echols and Paul Cotton, ASMC Cleveland Chapter VP of Programs
Cleveland made seven of 16 free throws in the fourth.
"I was relieved not having to do it, but I realized I missed it," Cleveland says.
Ltd., a subsidiary of Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd., purchased Cleveland Golf and continues to own and operate it today.
Over the last three years, Team Cleveland has provided facade grants for: Hey Joe's, Ten Twenty Four, Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, The Wishing Well, H Squared Ladies Wear, The Starving Musician, Airport Grocery, Mosquito Burrito, Mississippi Grounds, Studio 230, Heidi's, and the Bolivar County Annex.
Quest said it plans to establish a national center of excellence in diagnostic information services at Cleveland HeartLab's specialised laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio, focused on services that aid in assessing risk and treatment protocols for heart disease, the leading cause of death in the United States.
Against Golden State you need all your big guns reporting for duty and it just didn't happen for Cleveland. This time, however, they're fighting fit, fresh as daisies and poised to dot up.
Cleveland created several more chances but goalkeeper Chloe Sharp made quick decisions and good saves to prevent them stealing the lead.
In his new role, Pethel will be responsible for integrating First National Bank's cross-functional business model and for developing business opportunities in the greater Cleveland area.
Filming the movie consisted of long and cold weekends as you can imagine it would be in Cleveland from September to December.