Cleveland

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Cleveland,

former county, NE England, created under the Local Government Act of 1972 (effective 1974). It was composed of the county boroughs of Hartlepool and Teesside and parts of the former counties of Durham and Yorkshire (North Riding). In 1997, Cleveland was dissolved and the unitary authorities of Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland, and Stockton-on-Tees were created.

Cleveland.

1 City (1990 pop. 505,616), seat of Cuyahoga co., NE Ohio, on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River; laid out (1796) by Moses CleavelandCleaveland, Moses
, 1754–1806, American pioneer, b. Canterbury, Conn. After serving (1777–81) in the American Revolution, he practiced law in his native town and entered (1787) the state legislature.
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, chartered as a city 1836. Ohio's second largest city and the center of the state's largest metropolitan area, it is an ore port and a Great Lakes shipping point. In spite of a dramatic decline in manufacturing, Cleveland remains to some extent dependent on heavy industry, including steel milling and the manufacture of engines, guided missiles, and space vehicles. There are numerous research firms; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a large center here, and the headquarters of the lighting division and the Lighting and Electrical Institute of the General Electric Company is in nearby Nela Park. Cleveland also houses some of the nation's largest law firms. The biomedical industry is the fastest growing segment of Cleveland's economy, in large part because of the presence of the Cleveland Clinic, a world-famous research and treatment facility and the city's largest employer.

Cleveland is the seat of Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland State Univ., John Carroll Univ., Notre Dame College, the Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Music, and several other colleges and seminaries. Visitors are drawn to the Mall (civic center); the Terminal Tower and Public Square; the Rock-and-Roll Hall of Fame; the Western Reserve Historical Society Museum; the museum of natural history, with a planetarium; Wade Park, with the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Fine Arts Garden; Rockefeller Park, enclosing the Shakespeare and Cultural Gardens; Severance Hall, where concerts of the internationally famous Cleveland OrchestraCleveland Orchestra,
one of the foremost orchestras in the United States. It gave its first performance in 1918 under Nikolai Sokoloff, who was conductor until 1933. In 1931, the orchestra moved from the Cleveland Masonic Temple into the Georgian-style Severance Hall, located in
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 are performed; the Cleveland zoo; and an aquarium. The city also has a notable public library. The Cleveland Plain Dealer is a nationally known newspaper. In Lake View Cemetery are the graves of James A. GarfieldGarfield, James Abram,
1831–81, 20th President of the United States (Mar.–Sept., 1881). Born on a frontier farm in Cuyahoga co., Ohio, he spent his early years in poverty. As a youth he worked as farmer, carpenter, and canal boatman.
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, Mark HannaHanna, Marcus Alonzo
(Mark Hanna), 1837–1904, American capitalist and politician, b. New Lisbon (now Lisbon), Ohio. He attended Western Reserve College for a short time, then entered his father's wholesale grocery and commission business at Cleveland in 1858.
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 (who made his fortune in Cleveland), John HayHay, John Milton,
1838–1905, American author and statesman who was an important political figure from the mid-19th cent. into the early 20th cent.; b. Salem, Ind., grad. Brown. He practiced law at Springfield, Ill., where he met Abraham Lincoln.
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, and John D. Rockefeller.

Cleveland grew rapidly after the opening of the first section of the Ohio and Erie Canal in 1827 and the arrival of the railroad in 1851. With its factories it attracted large numbers of 19th-century immigrants, including Irish, Germans, Italians, Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, and many others. Its location midway between the coal and oil fields of Pennsylvania and (via the Great Lakes) the Minnesota iron mines spurred industrialization; it was here that John D. RockefellerRockefeller, John Davison,
1839–1937, American industrialist and philanthropist, b. Richford, N.Y. He moved (1853) with his family to a farm near Cleveland and at age 16 went to work as a bookkeeper.
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 began his oil dynasty. Cleveland's African-American community was formed largely by migration from the South after World War I.

The city was plagued during the 1960s by racial disorders, especially in the Hough and Glenville sections. In 1967, Cleveland became the first major U.S. city to elect a black mayor, Carl B. StokesStokes, Carl Burton,
1927–96, American political leader, b. Cleveland. A 1956 graduate of the Cleveland-Marshall School of Law, Stokes began his political career as a Democratic member of the Ohio general assembly (1962–67).
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. As industry rapidly declined from the 1960s, the city went through a period of Rust BeltRust Belt
or Rustbelt,
economic region in the NE quadrant of the United States, focused on the Midwestern (see Midwest) states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio, as well as Pennsylvania.
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 decay; numerous factories shut down and people and businesses moved to the suburbs. Cleveland's population declined 44% between 1950 and 1990. In 1979, the city declared bankruptcy after defaulting on $15.5 million in municipal loans. In the 1980s, however, Cleveland attracted investment downtown and revitalized some sections, and the 1990s saw the opening of Jacobs Field (for baseball's Indians), Gund Arena (for basketball's Cavaliers), Browns Stadium (for football's Browns), the Great Lakes Science Center, and the Rock-and-Roll Hall of Fame as well as the restoration of three historic downtown shopping arcades.

Bibliography

See E. J. Benton, Cultural Story of an American City: Cleveland (3 vol., 1943–46); G. E. Condon, Yesterday's Cleveland (1976); F. Thompson, The Workers Who Built Cleveland (1987).

2 City (1990 pop. 30,354), seat of Bradley co., SE Tenn.; inc. 1838. Agriculture (fruits, vegetables, wheat) is the economic mainstay, but a variety of products, including furniture, chemicals, and textiles, are manufactured. Lee College is there. Cleveland is headquarters of the Cherokee National Forest.

Cleveland

 

a city in the northeastern USA, in the state of Ohio; a port on the southern shore of Lake Erie where the Cuyahoga River empties into it. Population, 751,000 (1970); 2.1 million including the suburbs. It is one of the most important industrial, financial, and cultural centers of the USA.

Cleveland was founded in 1796. It grew in the 19th century as shipping developed on the Great Lakes and on the Erie-Ontario Canal, which began at Cleveland. Subsequently the advantageous position of the city along the route from the iron deposits of Lake Superior to the Pittsburgh coal-metallurgical region contributed to its transformation into a major center of metallurgy and later of machine building. In 1969, 870,000 of the region’s inhabitants were in the work force, including 34 percent in manufacturing, 35 percent in trade and services, 6 percent in transport and the municipal economy, 5 percent in finance, and 12 percent in the civil service.

Cleveland is one of the most important ports of the Great Lakes system; its turnover of goods was 20 million tons in 1969, with incoming freight (iron ore, limestone, and so on) being almost 40 times greater than outgoing cargo. Through the city pass important railroad and highway arteries connecting the northeastern seaboard with Detroit and Chicago. The city has an airport.

Of the 315,000 employed in industry, nearly three-fourths are in heavy industry. The leading sectors are ferrous metallurgy, metalworking, machine building of various varieties (machine tools, automobile parts, electrical and electronic products, construction and port equipment, and lake vessels and barges), the chemical industry, and the production of pharmaceuticals. Also important are the printing, garment, and meat industries. Oil is refined there. The city has a university.

Cleveland is an important center of the American workers’ movement.

V. M. GOKHMAN

Cleveland

1
Stephen Grover. 1837--1908, US Democratic politician; the 22nd and 24th president of the US (1885--89; 1893--97)

Cleveland

2
1. a former county of NE England formed in 1974 from parts of E Durham and N Yorkshire; replaced in 1996 by the unitary authorities of Hartlepool (Durham), Stockton-on-Tees (Durham), Middlesbrough (North Yorkshire) and Redcar and Cleveland (North Yorkshire)
2. a port in NE Ohio, on Lake Erie: major heavy industries. Pop.: 461 324 (2003 est.)
3. a hilly region of NE England, extending from the Cleveland Hills to the River Tees
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