Clifford of Chudleigh, Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron

Clifford of Chudleigh, Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron

(chŭd`lē), 1630–73, English statesman. Member (1667–73) of the CabalCabal
, inner group of advisers to Charles II of England. Their initials form the word (which is, however, of older origin)—Clifford of Chudleigh, Ashley (Lord Shaftesbury), Buckingham (George Villiers), Arlington (Henry Bennet), and Lauderdale (John Maitland).
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 at Charles IICharles II,
1630–85, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660–85), eldest surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria. Early Life

Prince of Wales at the time of the English civil war, Charles was sent (1645) to the W of England with his council,
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's court, he held a number of offices, rising to acting secretary of state and lord treasurer (1672). He was created Baron Clifford in 1672. Henry Bennet, earl of ArlingtonArlington, Henry Bennet, 1st earl of,
1618–85, English statesman. He fought for the royalists in the English civil war and, after going into exile, served as an envoy in Spain for the future Charles II.
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, and Clifford, both alleged Roman Catholics, knew of the secret clauses of the Treaty of Dover (1670), which provided for the reestablishment of Roman Catholicism in England. He was forced to resign by passage of the Test ActTest Act,
1673, English statute that excluded from public office (both military and civil) all those who refused to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, who refused to receive the communion according to the rites of the Church of England, or who refused to renounce belief
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 (1673), which excluded Roman Catholics from office. He died soon afterward, possibly by suicide.
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