Climatic Maps

Climatic Maps

 

maps that reflect the territorial distribution of climatic conditions based on the results of long-term observations. Climatic maps can be compiled both for individual climatic features (temperature, precipitation, humidity) and for combinations of them at the earth’s surface and in the upper layers of the atmosphere. Climatic maps afford a very convenient overview of the climatic features in a large region and permit values of climatic features to be compared in different parts of the region. Through interpolation the maps can be used to determine the values of climatic features in any particular spot.

Climatic maps generally apply to individual months and to the year as a whole, sometimes to the four seasons, to the growing period, and so forth. On maps compiled from the observations of ground meteorological stations, atmospheric pressure is converted to sea level. Air temperature maps are compiled both from the actual values observed on the surface of the earth and from values converted to sea level. The pressure field in free atmosphere is represented either by maps of the distribution of pressure at different standard altitudes—for example, at every kilometer above sea level—or by maps of baric topography on which altitudes (more precisely geopotentials) of the main isobaric surfaces (for example, 900, 800, and 700 millibars) counted off from sea level are plotted. The temperature, humidity, and wind on aeroclimatic maps may apply either to standard altitudes or to the main isobaric surfaces.

Isolines are drawn on maps of such climatic features as the long-term mean values (of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, total precipitation, and so forth) to connect points with equal values of the feature in question—for example, isobars for pressure, isotherms for temperature, and isohyets for precipitation. Isoamplitudes are drawn on maps of amplitudes (for example, annual amplitudes of air temperature—that is, the differences between the mean temperatures of the warmest and coldest month). Isanomals are drawn on maps of anomalies (for example, deviations of the mean temperature of each place from the mean temperature of the entire latitudinal zone). Isolines of frequency are drawn on maps showing the frequency of a particular phenomenon (for example, annual number of days with a thunderstorm or snow cover). Isochrones are drawn on maps showing the dates of onset of a given phenomenon (for example, the first frost and appearance or disappearance of the snow cover) or the date of a particular value of a meteorological element in the course of a year (for example, passing of the mean daily air temperature through zero). Isolines of the mean numerical value of wind velocity or isotachs are drawn on wind maps (charts); the wind resultants and directions of prevailing winds are indicated by arrows of different length or arrows with different plumes; lines of flow are often drawn. Maps of the zonal and meridional components of wind are frequently compiled for the free atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure and wind are usually combined on climatic maps. Wind roses, curves showing the distribution of other meteorological elements, diagrams of the annual course of elements at individual stations, and the like are also plotted on climatic maps.

Maps of climatic regionalization, that is, division of the earth’s surface into climatic zones and regions according to some classification of climates, are a special kind of climatic map.

Climatic maps are often incorporated into climatic atlases of varying geographic range (globe, hemispheres, continents, countries, oceans) or included in comprehensive atlases. Besides general climatic maps, applied climatic maps and atlases have great practical value. Aeroclimatic maps, aeroclimatic atlases, and agroclimatic maps are the most numerous.

S. P. KHROMOV

References in periodicals archive ?
About 15 countries have already formulated their own urban climatic maps, led by German researchers such as Katzschner, Baumuller, Matzarakis and others (Ren et al., 2010).
Hence, given the need to combat urban climate change effects within cities, some other countries in the tropical regions such as Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam have also initiated efforts to conduct detailed analyses on the urban climate in order to formulate their own urban climatic maps for urban planning guidelines (Hien et al., 2011; Jittawikul, Saito, & Ishihara, 2004; Ndetto & Matzarakis, 2013; Storch et al., 2009).
Previous studies on urban climatic map concepts have established a general framework of how urban climatic maps can fit into the urban planning system.
Urban climatic maps of Malaysian cities should be formulated based on suitable scales and levels of detail of the urban climate information to suit the needs of urban planners within the country's urban structure planning system (Isa et al., 2017).
These countries have also initiated efforts to formulate their own urban climatic maps based on their country's characteristics (Katzschner & Burghardt, 2015; Ren et al., 2013; Wong et al., 2015).
Identification of the climatic factors is crucial in order to model the climatic information in the formulated urban climatic maps. Unfortunately, no detailed studies have been conducted for Malaysian cities to identify the actual factors that affect the urban climatic condition of the urban areas or their magnitude.
Many studies suggest that the uniqueness of cities should be taken into account to closely depict the actual situations of their urban climate condition in the urban climatic map. Threshold values for urban parameters must also be established in order to be used as guides in formulating our own urban climatic maps.
Malaysian cities own unique urban morphology as compared to the other countries that already have or started the study on urban climatic maps. Most of the countries are situated in higher latitude as compared to Malaysia.
Therefore, this study proposes to develop Malaysia's very own urban climatic maps to suit the needs of urban planners and policy-makers.
Such climatic maps would summarize the knowledge of the climate of a region in a form suitable for a wide variety of users, including meteorologists, farmers, hydrologists, civil engineers, biologists, and those engaged in public transport....
Since daily climate data were available for one point (the county meteorology station) only, we scaled these daily climatic quantities (precipitation; mean wind speed; maximum, minimum, and mean temperature; mean relative humidity; and mean cloudiness) in light of corresponding monthly distribution maps over the county to produce daily climatic maps by means of the following expression
Severe injury to vinifera grapevines is likely to occur when temperatures are less than -5 to -10 [degrees] E Climatic maps show the entire state of New York experiences temperatures below these thresholds at least once every 10 years.