Clinical immunology

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Clinical immunology

A branch of clinical pathology concerned with the role of the immune defense system in disease. The subject encompasses diseases where a malfunction of the immune system itself is the basic cause, together with diseases where some external agent is the initiating factor but an excessive response by the immune system produces the actual tissue damage. It also extends to the monitoring of the normal immune response in infectious diseases and to the use of immunological techniques in disease diagnosis. See Allergy, Autoimmunity, Hypersensitivity, Immunological deficiency

Many features of the immune system make it prone to shift from protecting the body to damaging it. This complex system not only must distinguish between the body's own cells and a foreign invader but must also recognize and eliminate the body's own cells if they are damaged or infected with a virus. The recognition receptors used to make this fine distinction between “self” and “not self” are not encoded in the genes. Rather, they are assembled following random rearrangement of information carried in small gene segments. During their development, immune system cells are subjected to a selective process, those bearing potentially useful receptors being preserved while those bearing dangerous, self-reactive receptors are eliminated. This process is closely balanced, and some potentially self-reactive cells often persist. See Cellular immunology

There are several approaches to suppressing excessive immune reactivity. Desensitization, or modifying the nature of the response by injecting small amounts of the foreign antigen, is sometimes used to treat allergic states. In contrast, there are few therapies for enhancing immune responses. Bone marrow transplantation is used to restore the immune system in some immunodeficiency diseases. Passive transfer of preformed antibody protects against some infections, and transfusion of immunoglobulin is used to treat immunoglobulin deficiencies. However, vaccination or immunization is one of the most effective of all medical procedures. See Immunosuppression

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Anover-Sombke et al., "Novel signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations, reduced TH17 cell numbers, and variably defective STAT3 phosphorylation in hyper-IgE syndrome," The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.
Gross, "Genetic predisposition (NLRP3 V198M mutation) for IL-1-mediated inflammation in a patient with Schnitzler syndrome," Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.
The research appears in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. ( ANI )
With a value-added chain that extends from pre-clinical and clinical development to worldwide sales, Biotest has specialized primarily in the areas of clinical immunology, haematology and intensive medicine.
Malm, "Definition, prevalence and development of nasal obstruction," Allergy: European Journal ofAllergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.
Deniz et al., "Aspirin sensitivity and severity of asthma: evidence for irreversible airway obstruction in patients with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma," Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.
Henderson Jr., "Airway immunopathology of asthma with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction," The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.
Canonica, "The efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites respiratory allergy: Results of a GALEN meta-analysis," Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol.
The study was presented at the 2015 Annual Congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. In related developments, researchers have found a possible new therapy for people who suffer from chronic sinusitis.
Read More: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 09/16
According to a study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, children with winter-related atopic dermatitis may benefit from vitamin D supplementation.
In the USA and UK, the discipline of Clinical Immunology, linked with allergy training, is more than three decades old, with over 4 000 registered specialists in a 2004 USA survey.

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