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clipper,type of sailing ship, designed for speed. Long and narrow, the clipper had the greatest beam aft of the center; the bow cleaved the waves; and the ship carried, besides topgallant and royal sails, skysails and moonrakers—a veritable cloud of sails. The type originated in the United States. Baltimore clippers and Atlantic packet ships were the forerunners of the true Yankee clipper, which may be said to have emerged with the Ann McKim, completed in Baltimore in 1833. The Yankee clipper was brought to perfection by Donald McKay of Boston, who built such vessels as the Flying Cloud, the Glory of the Seas, and the Lightning. U.S. and British clippers came to be known as China clippers because they utilized their speed to carry on a flourishing China trade in tea and opium. Clippers sailed from the U.S. Atlantic coast around Cape Horn to California in the days of the gold rush. They steadily reduced the time for their long voyages and held famous races. The clipper came into being only after its finally successful rival, the steamship, was engaging in transoceanic voyages. In the early days the clipper easily outran the plodding steam vessel, but, ironically, the improved steamship began to forge ahead even as some of the fastest and most beautiful clippers were being built. When the Cutty Sark, one of the swiftest and most celebrated British clippers, was completed at Dunbarton, Scotland, in 1869, the era of the commercial sailing ship had nearly come to an end.
a two-electrode hydrogen-filled ionic device with an indirectly heated oxide cathode.
Clippers have the properties of high-current pulse-mode operated devices and rectifiers. They are used primarily to remove excessive voltages and to protect against unwanted signals, and they participate in charging the accumulators of radar-transmitter pulse modulators. They are also used as valves in current rectifiers.
The electrodes of the clipper are made of copper. The electrodes, together with ceramic walls, constitute the casing of the device. If a positive voltage is applied to the anode, a current pulse passes from the cathode to the anode, thereby removing any overvoltage. The advantages of the clipper include its low dynamic resistance (fractions of an ohm), its high electric strength, its low pick-up time (nanoseconds), its high stability under pulse-current overloads, and its greater protection effectiveness in comparison to other devices designed for similar purposes.
A. A. POLIAKOVA
Clipper(1) See CA-Clipper and CLIPPER chip.
(2) A family of 32-bit RISC microprocessors from Intergraph that were used in earlier graphics workstations.