Closed Ecosystem

Ecosystem, Closed


a functionally unified assemblage of organisms (plants, animals, and microorganisms) inhabiting a common territory and capable of prolonged existence under conditions of a closed cycle of matter (that is, in the absence of matter exchange across the boundaries).

The ecosystem principle is used in the development of life-support systems to maintain human life in places other than the earth’s biosphere, for example, in spacecraft or underwater craft. Such an artificially created ecosystem is based on plants, which in the process of photosynthesis use light energy to absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen, that is, regenerate the atmosphere. The plant biomass can be used as food by man and by other heterotrophic organisms, which themselves, in turn, can serve as food for man. The unused plant biomass and the metabolic wastes of man and other components of the artificial biocenosis are decomposed by microorganisms to form water, carbon dioxide, and mineral substances, which are reused by the plants.

Experimental closed ecosystems have been created in the USSR consisting of man, unicellular algae, higher plants (cabbages, carrots, beets, tomatoes, wheat), and microorganisms, which act as mineralizers. Regeneration in such ecosystems fully satisfies man’s requirements for oxygen and water and provides 20 percent of his food. Natural ecolosystems usually are referred to simply as ecosystems.


Odum, E. Osnovy ekologii. Moscow, 1975. (Translated from English.) Chapter 20.
Osnovy kosmicheskoi biologii i meditsiny, vol. 3. Moscow, 1975. Chapter 10.
Eksperimental’nye ekologicheskie sistemy, vkliuchaiushchie cheloveka. Moscow, 1975. (Problemy kosmicheskoi biologii, vol. 28.)


References in periodicals archive ?
The 200-day experiment was a full 20 days longer than a similar one - in a closed ecosystem - in the 1970s that had three people and lasted 180 days.
The PM expressed his assurance that Ukraine needs "creation of a closed ecosystem of investment and innovation support", thereby promoting the development of technological solutions and their introduction into the economy, and simultaneously eliminating the accumulated problems of investment development, in particular pressure on business.
Closed Ecosystem IoT relates to a fully integrated system of several types of network including machine to machine M2M, machine to human M2H and machine to data system M2D through an application gateway.
Customers and community members now have a platform to search, download, or contribute third party solutions that integrate with Cumulus Linux in a way that isn't possible with proprietary software, which creates vendor lock-in with a closed ecosystem.
It's also worth noting that this isn't a closed ecosystem to only a certain set of devices, and once developers start signing up we'll get to see several home-grown solutions taking advantage of Assistant.
The industry in India is a small, closed ecosystem involving farmers and oil producers," says Udeshi.
He says you are more likely to load malware onto an Android phone than on an iPhone or iPad because of the closed ecosystem Apple enforces.
Even if it only uses the demonstrated security of its closed ecosystem to negotiate some kind of resell terms with content producers, it would still be demonstrating a way libraries could gain similar terms with copyright holders.
The Earth is a closed ecosystem, and our growing population is now facing the limits of resource availability.
It holds one fifth of all the world's fresh water--more than all the Great Lakes combined--in a nearly closed ecosystem, sustaining 2,500 indigenous species and sub-species.
It was the boldest attempt ever'' to create a closed ecosystem, said David Tilman, a University of Minnesota scientist, but it failed miserably.
Stewart;s sidebar, "Biosphere 2 Nerve System" details how an application written on top of G2 is used to monitor the systems presented in this closed ecosystem experiment.