Other hold-out companies, however, blocked the aspirations of organized labour for the closed shop.
The closed shop was essentially a legal issue, a negotiated contractual arrangement between employers and workers, in which all of those working in a particular place covered by "the contract" of the collective agreement were required to belong to a particular union.
14) The war years gave a new sense of urgency and formality to encouraging continued production without interruption, conditions ripe for the closed shop or at least some alternate form of accommodation.
17) The experience at West Coast Shipbuilders Limited may stand out as exceptional in many regards, though arguably it was also representative of older entrenched attitudes toward the very idea of a closed shop and the fair hearing labour expected to receive under the law in the face of employer hostility and intransigence.
West Coast Shipbuilders Limited, which operated on False Creek lands inside Vancouver, adopted a confrontational approach to labour and stubbornly resisted any closed shop for certain unions.
Organized labour waited, and waited some more, for positive policy from the Canadian government and its department officials on matters of collective bargaining and enforcement of the closed shop.
Ceteris paribus, establishments with closed shops and union induced limits to managerial freedom are about 10% more likely to have below average financial performance and 16% less likely to have above average financial performance.
Ceteris peribus, establishments with closed shops or management-recommended membership and high relative employment share are about 21% less likely to have financial performance above average if there are union-induced limits to managerial freedom, and about 10% less likely if there are not, compared with other comparable establishments.
One such important misspecification is the combining with other categories of the pre-entry closed shops, which Machin and Stewart (1990) find to stand apart.
Collective bargaining arrangements, closed shops and relative pay', Economic Journal, 97, 140-56.
Furthermore, the fact that moves to make the closed shop, which is where most agree that unions were traditionally at their strongest, legally unenforceable occurred primarily from 1984 onwards with the provisions specified in the Employment Acts of 1982 and 1990, with the use of the former not coming into effect until 1984.
With respect to union structure, unions are seen to exert a negative influence on financial performance only where the closed shop (or a pseudo-closed shop supported by management - see below) is still in place.